This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• Is the art of applying colored pigments on to a flat surface, like canvas, paper, wood or plaster.
METHOD S: 1. Oil 2. Water Color 3. Fresco 4. Tempera
• The earliest known Western paintings were executed deep within caves of southern Europe during the Palaeolithic period, some 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. The early development of painting continued in the Mediterranean littoral.
the Prehistoric Sistine Chapel A cave complex in south-western France
the Prehistoric Sistine Chapel
12 September 1940
• • • •
Jacques Marsal Georges Agnel Simon Coencas Marcel Ravidat
the Prehistoric Sistine Chapel
as Picasso famously exclaimed “AFTER ALTAMIRA, ALL IS A DECADENCE”
Located near Santilliana del Mar in Cantabria, Northern Spain
as Picasso famously exclaimed “AFTER ALTAMIRA, ALL IS A DECADENCE”
Discovered in 1879 by Maria de Santuola most exceptional evidence of Magdalenian culture in southern Europe
Ardeche departement, Southern France
spectacular artwork • soon regarded as one of the most significant pre-historic art sites in the world
peeking into the prehistoric world
• The most respected form of art, according to authors like Pliny or Pausanias, • individual, mobile paintings on wooden boards, • techniques used - encaustic (wax) painting and tempera. • depicted figural scenes - including portraits and still-lifes • They were collected and often displayed in public spaces. Pausanias describes such exhibitions at Athens and Delphi • not one of the famous works of Greek panel painting has survived, nor even any of the copies that doubtlessly existed, and which give us most of our
One of the Pitsa panels, the only surviving panel paintings from Archaic Greece.
The most important surviving Greek examples are the:
• Pitsa panels- fairly low quality from circa 530 BC • Fayum mummy portraits - a large group of much later Graeco-Roman archaeological survivals from the dry conditions of Egypt, • Severan Tondo • Byzantine icons - also derived from the encaustic panel painting tradition.
Fayum mummy portraits
The Severan Tondo, a panel painting of the imperial family, circa 200 AD
Greek Orthodox Icon
• The tradition of wall painting in Greece goes back at least to the Minoan and Mycenaean Bronze Age, with the lavish fresco decoration of sites like Knossos, Tiryns and Mycenae. • Wall paintings are frequently described in Pausanias, and many appear to have been produced in the Classical and Hellenistic periods.
Symposium scene in the Tomb of the Diver at Paestum, circa 480 BC.
The most notable examples are:
• a monumental Archaic 7th century BC scene of hoplite combat from inside a temple at Kalapodi (near Thebes) • the elaborate frescoes from the 4th century "Grave of Phillipp" • the "Tomb of Persephone" at Vergina in Macedonia • Greek wall painting tradition is also reflected in contemporary grave decorations in the Greek colonies in Italy, • Some scholars suggest that the celebrated Roman frescoes at sites like Pompeii are the direct descendants of Greek tradition, and that some of them copy famous panel paintings.
Reconstructed colour scheme of the entablature on a Doric temple.
Polychromy: painting on statuary and architecture
• Polychrome - many color • Much of the figural or architectural sculpture of ancient Greece was painted colourfully.
Polychromy on Architecture
• Painting was also used to enhance the visual aspects of architecture. • Such architectural polychromy could take the form of bright colours directly applied to the stone or of elaborate patterns, frequently architectural members made of terracotta • Sometimes, the terracottas also depicted figural scenes, as do the 7th century BC terracotta metopes from Thermon.
Traces of paint depicting embroidered patterns on the a peplos of an Archaic kore,
Reconstructed colour scheme on a Trojan archer from the Temple of
Polychromy on Sculpture
• Most Greek sculptures were painted in strong colours. • The paint was frequently limited to parts depicting clothing, hair, and so on, with the skin left in the natural colour of the stone, but it could also cover sculptures in their totality. • The painting of Greek sculpture should not merely be seen as an enhancement of their sculpted form, but has the characteristics of a distinct style of art. • The polychromy of stone statues was paralleled by the use of different materials to distinguish skin, clothing and other details in chryselephantine sculptures, and by the use of different metals to depict lips, nipples, etc, on high-quality bronzes like the Riace Warriors.
• The most copious evidence of ancient Greek painting survives in the form of vase paintings. • It should be noted that strictly speaking, vase painting was a separate skill or art from potting. • It should also be kept in mind that vase painting, all be it by far the most conspicuous surviving source on ancient Greek painting, was not held in high regard in antiquity, and is never mentioned in Classical literature.
In this early Greek painting from around 800 B.C.E., Odysseus leaps up to blind Polyphemus the cyclops. Known as the Orientalizing style, Egyptian and Minoan influences are mixed with a Greek interest in illustrating motion.
• Our knowledge of Ancient Rome painting relies in large part on the preservation of artifacts from Pompeii and Herculanum, and particularly the Pompeian mural painting, • Pompeian mural painting, which was preserved after the eruption of Vesuvius in 79. AD.
Pompeian painter with painted statue and framed painting Pompeii
• Nothing remains of the Greek paintings imported to Rome during the 4th and 5th centuries, or of the painting on wood done in Italy during that period. • Pliny explicitly states around 69-79 AD that the only true painting was painting on wood and that this had nearly disappeared by his time, to the benefit of the muralists, which was more indicative of the wealth of the owners than their artistic tastes.
Variety of subjects
• Roman painting provides a wide variety of themes: animals, still life, and scenes from everyday life. • During the Hellenistic period, it evoked the pleasures of the countryside and represented scenes of shepherds, herds, rustic temples, rural mountainous landscapes and country houses.
Boscotrecase , Pompeii. Second style
• The main innovation of Roman painting compared to Greek art was the development of landscapes, in particular incorporating techniques of perspective. • The art of the ancient East would have known the landscape only in terms of civil or military scenes.
• Roman mural painting is generally distinguished by four periods, as originally described by the German archaeologist August Mau and dealt with in more detail at Pompeian Styles.
• From the 3rd century BC, a specific genre known as Triumphal Paintings appeared, as indicated by Pliny. • These were paintings which showed triumphal entries after military victories, represented episodes from the war, and conquered regions and cities. • Summary maps were drawn to highlight key points of the campaign • These paintings have disappeared, but they likely influenced the composition of the historical reliefs carved on military sarcophagi, the Arch of Titus, and Trajan's Column.
Ranuccio also describes the oldest painting to be found in Rome, in a tomb on the Esquiline Hill:
• "It describes a historical scene, on a clear background, painted in four superimposed sections. Several people are identified, such Marcus Fannius and Marcus Fabius. These are larger than the other figures...In the second zone, to the left, is a city encircled with crenellated walls, in front of which is a large warrior equipped with an oval buckler and a feathered helmet; near him is a man in a short tunic, armed with a spear...Around these two are smaller soldiers in short tunics, armed with spears...In the lower zone a battle is taking place, where a warrior with oval buckler and a feathered helmet is shown larger than the others, whose
• This episode is difficult to pinpoint. One of Ranuccio's hypotheses is that it refers to a victory of the consul Fabius Maximus Rullianus during the second war against Samnites in 326 BC. • The presentation of the figures with sizes proportional to their importance is typically Roman, and finds itself in plebeian reliefs. • This painting is in the infancy of triumphal painting, and would have been accomplished by the beginning of the 3rd century BC to decorate the tomb.
• In Greece and Rome, wall painting was not considered as high art. • The most prestigious form of art besides sculpture was panel painting, i.e. tempera or encaustic painting on wooden panels. • Since wood is a perishable material, only very few examples of such paintings have survived, namely the Severan Tondo from circa 200 AD, and the well-known Fayum mummy portraits. • They usually depict a single person, showing the head, or head and upper chest, viewed frontally. • The background is always monochrome, sometimes with decorative elements. • In terms of artistic tradition, the images clearly derive more from Graeco-Roman traditions than Egyptian ones.
• Medieval painting refers to most of the art produced in Europe during a period of about 1,000 years. This period began with the fall of the Roman Empire in the A.D. 300’s and 400’s and ended with the beginning of the Renaissance in the 1300’s. Medieval European society centered around Christianity. Most medieval Christians believed that life on earth was less important than the life of the spirit. They placed the greatest importance on life after death. Painting in the medieval period reflected this attitude.
• For medieval artists, the Christian religion- not human beings and nature- was the chief source of subject matter. These artists were not interested in techniques that would help show the world as it was. They generally ignored perspective and gave their works a flat look. They made wide use of symbols in their works in order to tell stories. For example, some medieval artists painted skies in gold or purple to symbolize God’s kingdom in heaven.
• Even though almost all medieval artists dealt with religious subjects, they developed several styles:
• Starting in the A.D. 300’s, eastern Christians gradually separated from the western Christians, who were ruled by the pope in Rome. Eastern Christian art is called Byzantine because the religion centered in the city of Byzantium (now Istanbul, Turkey). By the 500’s, the Byzantine artists had developed a special painting style of religious painting. The Byzantine painting style has remained largely unchanged to the present day
Madonna and Child Enthroned
Italian artist Cimabue broke away from the iconic Byzantine style, taking a more realistic approach in his paintings. He attempted to depict objects receding in space, as can be seen here in the architectural form of the throne and in the overlapping figures of the angels on either side. This work is dated around 1285 and is in the collection of the Uffizi Gallery, Florence,
Theodora and Attendants
• Completed around 547, the lavishly detailed mosaics covering the interior of the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, are some of the most famous in Byzantine (Eastern Christian) art. Here, in a scene from the south wall of the apse, the Empress Theodora stands with her attendants while holding a golden cup for the
Transfiguration of Christ by Theophanes the Greek
• This icon by Byzantine painter Theophanes the Greek dates from the end of the 14th century. It represents the transfiguration of Jesus Christ, an event that is believed to have taken place on Mount Tabor. The triangular composition of the painting is emphasized by the rays of glory, which radiate from the figure of Christ down toward the three apostles. On Jesus’s left is Moses (holding a tablet), and on his right is the prophet Elijah.
• developed among the tribes of Ireland and other parts of northern Europe. Celtic artists became most famous for their illuminations (illustrations from the Bibles. The Celtic style emphasized abstract patterns of elaborately arranged interlaced lines. An example from the famous Book of Kells, made in Ireland during the 700’s or 800’s, is reproduced in color in the Manuscript article.
Book of Kells
• The Book of Kells, an illuminated Irish manuscript of the Gospels in Latin, contains sumptuous illustrations on vellum, including this page illustrating the arrest of Jesus Christ. The manuscript, which probably dates from the mid-8th century, is in Trinity College Library in
• During the 1000’s and 1100’s, a generally uniform style painting called Romanesque painting appeared in western Europe. It combined elements of classical Roman, early Christian, Byzantine, and Carolingian art. It developed at about the same time that many churches were being built to serve the needs of the growing Christian faith. Romanesque artists painted beautiful frescoes on the stone walls of many churches. The paintings lack perspective, but they show skill in composition. Some of the paintings look like brightly colored pages from illuminated Bibles that had been enlarged and transferred to wall surfaces.
Moses Expounding the Law
• This early-12th-century illuminated manuscript illustration depicts Moses expounding the law. The piece is divided into two scenes, the upper showing Moses and Aaron delivering the law to the Israelites, and the lower showing Moses distinguishing between the clean and unclean beasts. The illustration serves as the frontispiece for a Bible from the Abbey of Bury Saint Edmunds in England.
Illustration of Saint Mark from the Ebbo Gospels
• Illustration of Saint Mark from the Ebbo Gospels • This is a page from the illuminated manuscript known as the Ebbo Gospels (about 816-835). It depicts Saint Mark looking heavenward for inspiration as he writes his gospel account, and is drawn in an expressive, energetic style typical of medieval art of that period. The full name of the Ebbo Gospels is the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims. This page measures about 25 by 20 cm (about 10
• During the 1200’s, Gothic architecture replaced Romanesque as the style for many European churches. The Gothic style of architecture featured large windows that took away much of the wall space on which artists had painted frescoes in Romanesque churches. Artists filled the windows with beautifully colored stained glass that told religious stories. In northern Europe, fresco painting declined during the Gothic period. Many painters during this time worked as illuminators. They decorated expensive manuscript copies of the Gospels and prayer books.
• The colors and design of stained-glass windows influenced the Gothic manuscript painters. Many of these artists favored the bright blues and reds common in stained-glass. They often divided their figures into separate compartments that resemble the many panels of these complex windows.
Rose Window, Notre Dame
• The north rose window of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris (1240-1250) was built by Jean de Chelles. It is designed in the Rayonnant style, named for the radiating spokes in this type of window. The center circle depicts the Virgin and Child, surrounded by figures of prophets. The second circle shows 32 Old Testament kings, and the outer circle depicts 32 high priests and patriarchs.
• Sometime during the 1200’s, European painting took a turn toward greater realism. Some artists began painting people and scenes in a way that resembled their appearance in real life. This movement became strongest during the late 1200’s in Italy. It is most apparent in the works of Giotto, one of the greatest painters in the history of art.
• Gothic architecture was not widespread in Italy during Giotto’s time. Giotto and other artists continued to paint frescoes on church walls. The Italians tried to make their church walls look like windows by decorating them with realistic frescoes.
Ascension by Giotto
• Italian painter Giotto dedicated an early 13th-century fresco cycle in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, Italy, to the life of Jesus Christ. This panel showing the ascension of Jesus is taken from the New Testament account in the Acts of the Apostles. Christ ascends into heaven on a cloud, hidden from the apostles below. Two men in white robes then announce to the apostles that Christ
Saint Francis Fresco Cycle
• In this fresco, one of a series of frescoes executed by 14th-century Italian artist Giotto in the Church of Santa Croce in Florence, Italy, Francis of Assisi receives papal confirmation for the rule of his Franciscan order. Giotto’s concern with the realistic depiction of human figures in sculptural, rounded forms marked a decisive break with medieval pictorial conventions. His altarpieces and church frescoes heralded some of the most important innovations of Florentine Renaissance
• The word mannerism derives from the Italian maniera, meaning "style" or "manner". Like the English word “style,” maniera can either be used to indicate a specific type of style (a beautiful style, an abrasive style), or maniera can be used to indicate an absolute that needs no qualification (someone ‘has style’).
• a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when a more Baroque style began to replace it, but continued into the seventeenth century throughout much of Europe. Stylistically, Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities.
Madonna with the Long Neck
• Italian painter Parmigianino’s works clearly illustrate the Mannerist style. Madonna with the Long Neck, one of Parmigianino’s best known works, features a crowded group of elegant, elongated figures in strangely exaggerated poses. The work was painted from 1534 to 1540 and is in the collection of the Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.
• Italian artist Jacopo da Pontormo’s Deposition (15251528, Church of Santa Felicitá, Florence, Italy) shows the characteristics of the Mannerist style. The arrangement of the figures creates a sense of swirling movement and helps convey the emotionally charged atmosphere while the body of Jesus Christ is brought down from the cross and presented to his mother Mary. The elongated bodies and unnatural compression of space between the figures are also typical of Mannerism.
• Michelangelo’s Last Judgment, the large fresco on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, dates from 1536-1541—about 20 years after the famous ceiling frescoes were painted. This painting of judgment day, with its grotesque and twisted figures, represents one of the earliest examples of Mannerist art. Christ stands in the center of the fresco meting out justice, while the saved rise on the left and the damned
Rosso’s Descent from the Cross
• In Descent from the Cross (1521, Pinacoteca Comunale, Volterra, Italy), Italian painter Rosso Fiorentino intentionally created a disturbing scene. In this and other early paintings Rosso departed from the classical conventions of High Renaissance art and helped launch the 16th-century Italian style known as Mannerism. In Mannerist paintings, attenuated human figures typically assume exaggerated poses in a shallow picture space.
Saint John the Baptist
• With its stylized, twisted pose and ambiguous use of space, Italian painter Agnolo Bronzino’s painting Saint John the Baptist demonstrates the Mannerist style popular in the mid16th century. This work is in the Borghese Gallery in Rome, Italy.
• French: Renaissance, meaning "rebirth“ • Italian: Rinascimento, from re"again" and nascere "be born“ • was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. • Painting of this era is connected to the "rebirth" of classical antiquity, the impact of humanism on artists and their patrons, new artistic sensibilities and techniques, and, in general, the transition from the
• Renaissance art was a reflection of Renaissance literature. • During the Middle Ages, artists had used a flat, symbolic style of painting. • Renaissance artists were much more realistic than Middle Age artists. • Renaissance artists tried to show human forms and facial features as they looked in real life. • Biblical, classical and mythological characters were common subjects in Renaissance painting. • Renaissance painting bridges the period of European art history between the art of the Middle Ages and Baroque art. • In the visual arts, significant achievements occur around 1400 in both Italy and north of the Alps.
• Masaccio's art and the writings of Leon Battista Alberti helped establish linear perspective and the idealisation of the human body as primary ideas of Italian Renaissance painting in the early 15th century. • Likewise, Early Netherlandish artists such as Jan van Eyck were innovators in oil painting and intuitive spatial compositions. The brief High Renaissance (c. 1500–1520) centred around Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael in Florence and Rome, was a culmination of the Italian achievements, while artists like Albrecht Dürer brought a similar level of intellectual and artistic innovation to northern Europe. • Late Renaissance painting, from about 1520 until the end of the 16th century, is marked by various Mannerist tendencies that spread from Italy through the rest of France.
REASONS THE RENAISSANCE BEGAN IN ITALY
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. City life stronger in Italy than other parts of Europe. City-State governments of Italy required educated citizenry. Italy's traders/merchants came into contact with other civilizations. Classical relics found in Italy inspired Renaissance. Italy was the richest nation in Europe at the time. Italian city-states competed in civic pride. Immigration into Italy from Eastern Europe.
• The use of perspective: The first major treatment of the painting as a window into space appeared in the work of Giotto di Bondone, at the beginning of the 14th century. True linear perspective was formalized later, by Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti. • sfumato - The term sfumato was coined by Italian Renaissance artist, Leonardo da Vinci, and refers to a fine art painting technique of blurring or softening of sharp outlines by subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another through the use of thin glazes to give the illusion of depth or three-dimensionality. This stems from the Italian word sfumare meaning to evaporate or to fade out. The Latin origin is fumare, to smoke. The opposite of sfumato is chiaroscuro.
• foreshortening - The term foreshortening refers to the artistic effect of shortening lines in a drawing so as to create an illusion of depth. • chiaroscuro - The term chiaroscuro refers to the fine art painting modeling effect of using a strong contrast between light and dark to give the illusion of depth or threedimensionality. This comes from the Italian words meaning light (chiaro) and dark (scuro), a technique which came into wide use in the Baroque Period.; Sfumato is the opposite of chiaroscuro. • Balance and Proportion: proper sizes and the use of airy, bright colors. The human anatomy wasn't as idealized as during the
Early Renaissance (1400 - 1499)
• The scholars and artists of the Renaissance believed they were participating in a rebirth of the ideals and values of the classical Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman eras. • Artistic personality and the notion of individual humanity were emerging from a long sleep of anonymity. • The symbolic, abstract, and remote imagery of the past was being supplanted by a more tangible reality.
High Renaissance in th (1500 - 1550)
• The 16th century was the age of individual genius. • Many of the West's most legendary artists - da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titan, Tintoretto, and Veronese were active during this era. • They changed not only the direction of Western art, but established the modern concept of the artist.
The Northern Renaissanc (1400 - 1599)
• The Italian style of Renaissance art was carried by merchants and foreign businessmen into the north, but Medieval traditions lingered into the fifteenth century - influencing the development of Northern Renaissance art and architecture. • Northern artists often combined Renaissance techniques of perspective and realism with typically Gothic elements, such as pointed arches and the meticulous detail usually found in manuscript illumination.
Mannerism (1520 - 1600)
• A style that developed in the sixteenth century as a reaction to the classical rationality and balanced harmony of the High Renaissance; characterised by the dramatic use of space and light, exaggerated colour, elongation of figures, and distortions of perspective, scale, and proportion.
Duccio, Cimabue, and Before the Giotto
Duccio, Maesto Madonna, 1308-1311
Cimabue, Madonna in Majesty, c. 1285
Giotto, Ognisanti Madonna, c. 1310
Giotto, Arena (Scrovegni ) Chapel, 1302-6
Giotto, The Kiss of Judas, Arena Chapel, 1302-6
Giotto, Lamentation Over Christ, Arena Chapel, 1302-6
The Early Renaissance in Italy
Masaccio, The Trinity, 1425-1428
Masaccio, Brancacci Chapel,
Santa Maria della Carmine in Florence, 1426-28
Masaccio, Expulsion from Eden, Brancacci Chapel, 1426-28
Masaccio, Tribute Money,
Brancacci Chapel, 1426-28
Sandro Botticelli, Madonna of the Magnificat, 1485
The High Renaissance in Italy
Leonardo da Vinci, The Virgin, Child, and St. Anne, 1510
Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1498
Raphael, The Alba Madonna, 1511
Raphael, The School of Athens, 1509-10
Michelang elo Sistine Chapel (full), 1508-1512
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling (part 1)
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling (part 2)
OTHER RENAISSANCE PAINTING
• According to the Oxford English Dictionary , the word baroque is derived from the Portuguese word "barroco", Spanish "barrueco", or French "baroque", all of which refer to a "rough or imperfect pearl", though whether it entered those languages via Latin, Arabic, or some other source is uncertain. • In informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is "elaborate", with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. • was a Western cultural epoch, commencing roughly at the beginning of the 17th century in Rome, Italy.
• Baroque painting is the painting associated with the Baroque cultural movement, a movement often identified with the existence of important Baroque art and architecture in non-absolutist and Protestant states. • A defining statement of what Baroque signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris (now at the Louvre) in which a Catholic painter satisfied a Catholic patron: Baroque-era conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement. • There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona; both approaching emotive dynamism with different styles.
• Another frequently cited work of Baroque art is Bernini's Saint Theresa in Ecstasy for the Cornaro chapel in Saint Maria della Vittoria, which brings together architecture, sculpture, and theater into one grand conceit. • The later Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, which, through contrast, further defines Baroque. • The intensity and immediacy of baroque art and its individualism and detail— observed in such things as the convincing rendering of cloth and skin textures—make it one of the most
Diego Velázquez (1599 - 1660)
Spanish painter who ranks among the greatest masters of seventeenth-century Europe and is best known for his portraits
Francisco de Zurbarán (1598 - 1664)
Spanish Baroque painter of portraits and religious subjects
Other Baroque Paintings
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.