You are on page 1of 37

1

Electromagnetism
Soedibyo
2
References
1. Theraja, B. L., ‘Electrical Technology’, S. Chand & Company Ltd.,
1978.
2. en.wikipedia.org
3
RE1334 KONVERSI TENAGA LISTRIK I
 1: Energi dan permasalahannya
 2: Konsep konversi energi
 3: Pembangkitan energi listrik konvensional & non
konvensional
 4: Dasar elektromagnetik, pengenalan bahan
magnetik dan elektromekanik
 5: Mesin arus searah (DC)
 6: Generator DC: cara kerja, klasifikasi dan
persamaan tegangan
 7: Generator DC: rugi-rugi daya dan efisiensi,
efisiensi maksimum serta karakteristik
 8:
 9-10: Ujian Tengah Semester
4
Last Assignment: Electricity Generation
 Each group’s assignments (ppt format) are to
be put into one folder and to be submitted
next week (& to be copied to each other
groups).

 See the flash animations at
http://www.pln.co.id/InfoUmum/Pembangkitan
Listrik/tabid/77/Default.aspx

5
Electric machines:
Mechanica
l energy
electrical
energy
Magnetic field
Generator; motor; transformer
6
Basic Principles
1. Ampere’s Law:
An electric current
produces a
magnetic field.
7
Review of the Basics
i1 in
a. b.
Ampere’s Law
8
1. Ampere’s Law
}
= ·
net
I dl H
H = magnetic field
intensity produced by the
current I
net
.

dl = differential element
of length along the path
of integration.
If the core is composed of iron/other
similar metals, essentially all the
magnetic field produced by the current
will remain inside the core -> path of
integration is path length of the core l
c.

c
c
l
Ni
H
Ni l H
=
= ·
9
1. Ampere’s Law (2)
.The strength of the
magnetic field flux produced
in the core also depends on
the material of the core.
H B µ =
H = magnetic field intensity
(At/m)
µ = magnetic permeability of
material (H/m)
B = resulting magnetic flux
density produced (Wb/m
2
or T)

Permeability: the degree of
magnetization of a material in
response to a magnetic field
10
1. Ampere’s Law (2)
m H / 10 4
7
0
÷
· = t µ
µ
0
= permeability of free space
Relative permeability =
Permeability of any other material
compared to µ
0


To compare the magnetizability of
materials.
0
µ
µ
µ =
r
For example:
The steels used in modern
machines have µ
r
of 2000 to 6000
or more.

This means that, for a given
amount of current, 2000 to 6000
times more flux is established in
a piece of steel than in a
corresponding area of air.

Obviously, the metals in
machines core is important in
increasing and concentrating
magnetic flux in the device.
11
1. Ampere’s Law (2)
m H / 10 4
7
0
÷
· = t µ
µ
0
= permeability of free space
Relative permeability =
Permeability of any other material
compared to µ
0


To compare the magnetizability of
materials.
0
µ
µ
µ =
r
For example:
The steels used in modern
machines have µ
r
of 2000 to 6000
or more.

This means that, for a given
amount of current, 2000 to 6000
times more flux is established in
a piece of steel than in a
corresponding area of air.

Obviously, the metals in
machines core is important in
increasing and concentrating
magnetic flux in the device.

The advantage of using a
ferromagnetic material for cores
in electric machines is that one
gets many times more flux for a
given mmf with iron than with air.
12

13
Magnetomotive force (ampere-turn (At))
 Magnetomotive force is any physical cause
that produces magnetic flux.In other words it
is a field of magnetism (tesla) that has area
(meters square), so that (Tesla)(Area)= Flux.
 It is analogous to electromotive force or
voltage in electricity.
 The standard definition of magnetomotive
force involves current passing through an
electrical conductor, which accounts for the
magnetic fields of electromagnets.

14
Magnetic Circuit
9 = ·
= ·
|
Ni
(a) A simple electric circuit
(b) The magnetic circuit analog to a transformer core
N is the number of turns of the coil,
I is the current in the coil,
Φ is the magnetic flux
is the reluctance of the magnetic circuit.
The latter equation is sometimes known as Hopkinson's
law.
9
15

16
Magnetization curve
(a) Sketch of a dc magnetization curve for a
ferromagnetic core.
(b) The magnetization curve expressed in terms of
flux density & magnetizing intensity
17
Magnetic Circuit (2)
The advantage of using a
ferromagnetic material for cores
in electric machines is that one
gets many times more flux for a
given mmf with iron than with
air.

Since real generators & motors
depend on magnetic flux to
produce voltage & torque, they
are designed to produce as
much flux as possible.
-> most real machines operates
near the knee of the
magnetization curve.
(a) Sketch of a dc magnetization curve for a
ferromagnetic core.
(b) The magnetization curve expressed in terms of
flux density & magnetizing intensity
18
Magnetic Circuit (2)
(c) A detailed magnetization curve for a typical piece
of steel
19

Energy Losses in a Ferromagnetic Core
20
Hysteresis Loss (1)
x
x
x
. .
.
Magnetic domains oriented randomly Magnetic domains lined up in the
presence of an external magnetic field
.When the external magnetic field is removed, the domains don’t completely
randomize again.
Because turning them back requires energy.
.The fact that turning domains in the iron requires energy leads to a common
energy loss in all machines and transformers -> hysteresis loss.
21
Energy Losses in a Ferromagnetic Core
22
Hysteresis Loss (2)
. P1:both field strength and flux density are
zero.

.The field strength is increased in the
positive direction and the flux begins to grow
along the dotted path until we reach P2.
This is called the initial magnetization curve.

.When the applied field is returned to zero
there will still be a remaining (remnant or
remanent) flux density at P3.
23
Hysteresis Loss (3)
24
Hysteresis Loss (3)
25
Area of Hysteriesis Loop
.Hysteresis loop measures the energy dissipated due to hysteresis which
appears in the form of heat and so raises the temperature of that portion of
the magnetic reversals.
.The shape of the hysteresis loop depends on the nature of magnetic
substance.
.Loop 1: for hard steel.
Due to its high retentivity & coercivity*, it is well suited for making permanent
magnets.
But due to large hysteresis loss it’s not suitable for rapid reversals of magnetisation.
Certain alloys of alumunium, nickel, & steel called Alnico alloys is found suitable for
making permanet magnets.
26
Area of Hysteriesis Loop
.Loop 2: is for wrought iron & cast steel.
It shows that these materials have high permeability & fairly good coercivity, hence
making them suitable for cores of electromagnets.

.Loop 3: is for alloyed sheet steel & it shows high permeability & low hysteresis loss.
Hence such materials are suitable for making armature & transformer cores which are
subjected to rapid reversals of magnetization.
27
A family of B-H loops for grain-
oriented electrical steel (BR denotes
remanence and HC is the
coercivity).
When an external magnetic field is
applied to a ferromagnet, the atomic
dipoles align themselves with the
external field.
28

29
Electromagnetic Induction
Faraday’s Law of induction

30
Review: Fleming’s Right-hand Rule
Fleming's right hand rule (for
generators) shows the direction
of induced current flow when a
conductor moves in a magnetic
field.


The Thumb represents the
direction of Motion of the
conductor.

The First finger represents the
direction of the Field.

The Second finger represents the
direction of the induced or
generated Current
31

32
Coercivity
 Coercivity: the coercivity, also called the
coercive field, of a ferromagnetic material is the
intensity of the applied magnetic field required to
reduce the magnetization of that material to zero
after the magnetization of the sample has been
driven to saturation. Coercivity is usually
measured in oersted or ampere/meter units and
is denoted HC.

 When the coercive field of a ferromagnet is
large, the material is said to be a hard or
permanent magnet.
 Permanent magnets find application in electric
motors, magnetic recording media (e.g. hard
drives, floppy disks, or magnetic tape) and
magnetic separation.

 A ferromagnet with a low coercive field is said to
be soft and may be used in microwave devices,
magnetic shielding, transformers or recording
heads.
33
Retentivity
 The retentivity of a material is its capacity to
remain magnetized after the external
magnetizing field has ceased to exist.
 A material with high retentivity (i.e. iron) will
keep some magnetic properties, it will
become a permanent magnet, whereas a
material with low or no retentivity will not
keep the magnetic properties—it will lose its
magnetization.
34
 Thank You
35
(d) A plot of relative permeability µr as
a function of magnetizing intensity
H for a typical piece of steel.
36
Review of the Basics
Faraday’s Law of induction

i1 in
a. b.
Ampere’s Law
When an emf is generated by
a change in magnetic flux
according to Faraday's Law,
the polarity of the induced
emf is such that it produces a
current whose magnetic field
opposes the change which
produces it.
Lenz’s Law*
37
Electromagnetic Induction
When an emf is generated by
a change in magnetic flux
according to Faraday's Law,
the polarity of the induced
emf is such that it produces a
current whose magnetic field
opposes the change which
produces it.
Lenz’s Law