Positive Politeness and Negative Politeness

Prof: A. Elhaloui

The three things we have seen so far

1. A model person: face + rationality 2. Some acts are Face-Threatening Acts 3. Examples of the ways some acts can threaten face (S’s face or H’s face).

Strategies for doing the FTA
• In the context of the mutual vulnerability of face, any rational agents will seek to avoid these Face Threatening Acts, or will employ certain strategies to minimize the threat.

How?

Summary of the Four Politeness Strategies 1. with no redressive action) 2. Do it on record with redressive action (Negative Politeness) . Do FTA on record (baldly. Do it off record 3. Do it on record with redressive action (Positive Politeness) 4.

Can you pass me the salt? Three questions: 1. Why do we have indirectness (a question instead of a request)? 3. Why does the question sound like a ”conventional way of making a request”? .Note .. How do we derive a request from a question? 2..

We learnt how to derive a request from a question .. is: why does indirectness sound conventional? . Can you pass me the salt? 1. One question we still need to deal with.. 2. 3.. however.. Now we understand why we have indirectness:Indirectness means we are NOT imposing: a negative politeness strategy.Note .

Note . . on record requirement negative politeness Conventionalized indirectness...

H) + P (H. Social distance 2. S) + Rx .Hoe do people assess threat? 1. Relative power 3. Absolute ranking Weightiness of threat = S (S.

Do FTA on record (baldly. Don’t do the FTA . with no redressive action) 2. Do it off record 3. Do it on record with redressive action (Negative Politeness) High Threat 5. Do it on record with redressive action (Positive Politeness) 4.Summary of the Four Politeness Strategies Low Threat 1.

How do pariticipants infer politenes strategies? The four highest level (the most general) strategies of politeness are referred to as: Super-strategies .

Do it off record 3. Do it on record with redressive action (Negative Politeness) 5. Don’t do the FTA Super-strategies . Do FTA on record (baldly. with no redressive action) 2. Do it on record with redressive action (Positive Politeness) 4.Summary of the Four Politeness Strategies 1.

.How do pariticipants infer politenes strategies? • Strategies emanating from them are referred to as higher-order strategies • ”Output Strategies” are those that emanate from higher order strategies and are linguistically expressed.

A Graphic Representation of the PS Do the FTA Off record On record With redressive action Without redressive action Positive Politeness Negative Politeness .

Super-strategies higher-order startegies output strategies .

Positive Politeness .

Claim Common Grounds. 2. Assume that S and H are Cooperators. Fulfill H’s want for some X. 3. .Higher order strategies of positive politeness 1.

.g.Claim Common Grounds • Exaggerate (interest. approval. by Switching back and forth between past and present tenses) • Exaggerate facts • Repetition • Avoid disagreement • Hedges . sympathy with H) • Intensify interest to H (e.

Claim Common Ground Notice. wants. goods) . needs. attend to H (her interests.

it’s a long time since breakfast.You must be hungry. How about some lunch? Claim common grounds: Notice attend to H .

What a beautiful vase this is! Where did it come from? Claim common grounds: Notice attend to H .

• God! You’re farty tonight! • We ate too many beans tonight. didn’t we? Claim common grounds: Notice attend to H .

Claim Common Ground
Exaggerate (interest, approval, sympathy with H)

What a fanta’stic ga’rden you have!

Claim common grounds: Exaggerate
Thank you!

How absolutely marvelous / extraordinary / devastating / incredible

Claim common grounds: Exaggerate

g. by Switching back and forth between past and present tenses) ..Claim Common Ground Intensify interest to H (e.

I wore a black jumper. I used to wear it more that I do now. you’re more for pinks and blues” Claim common grounds: Intensify interest to H . “Oh it’s not your color.Black I like. and when I wear it my mum says “Ah” she said. But Len likes it. But when my mum sees it she said. he thinks it looks ever so nice and quite a few people do. I very rarely wear it now.

.. the phone’s off the hook and the clothes are scattered all over.• I come down the stairs. and what do you think I see? – a huge mess all over the place. Claim common grounds: Intensify interest to H .

Claim Common Ground In-group identity markers .

Come here. mate/honey/darling Claim common grounds: In-group identity markers . I was keeping that seat for a friend of mine. 2. Here mate.1.

Claim Common Ground Joke .

1. How about lending me this old heap of junk? (H’s new Cadillac) Claim common grounds: Joke . Ok if I tackle those cookies? 2.

Claim Common Ground Exaggerate facts .

Claim common grounds: Exaggerate facts .Dear Jimmy. you always do the dishes! I’ll do them this time.

I’ll be done in one second (half a sec’ / half a mo’) Claim common grounds: Exaggerate facts .

Claim Common Ground Repetition .

Oh God! A flat tyre! Claim common grounds: Repetition .I had a flat tyre on the way home.

Claim Common Ground Avoid disagreement .

. Florida? That’s where I was born.Claim common grounds: Avoid disagreement That’s where you live.

 So is this permanent?  Yeah. Let me put it that way! Claim common grounds: Avoid disagreement  And they haven’t heard a word. It’s permanent. she’s small. Except Mrs H maybe. yes. I had friends.not really small but not really very big. huh?  Not a word.Permanent until I get married again. Not at all. smallish.So-called friends.  Have you got friends?  I have friends. .  What is she? Small?  Yes.um.

Claim Common Ground Hedges .

Claim common grounds: hedges . You really should sort of try harder. 2. 3. aren’t you? That knife sort of chews bread.1. 4. You really sort of botched it. You really are sort of loner.

Assume S and H are cooperators Assert. presuppose S’s knowledge of and concern for H’s wants. .

Assume S and H are cooperators: Assert. I know you want the car back at 5:00. Look. so should I go to town now? . presuppose S’s knowledge of and concern for H’s wants.

1. presuppose S’s knowledge of and concern for H’s wants. I know you love roses but the florist didn’t have any more. I brought you geraniums instead (offer. I know you can’t bear parties.do come 2. . but this one will really be good. Assume S and H are cooperators: Assert. apology).

I hope. .Assume S and H are cooperators: Be optimistic You’ll lend me your lawnmower for the weekend.

You don’t have any objections to me helping myself to a bit of cake. do you? .Assume S and H are cooperators: Be optimistic 1. Look! I’m sure you won’t mind if I remind you to do the dishes tonight. I’ve come to borrow a cup of flower 2. 3.

Negative Politeness .

. Don’t coerce.Higher order strategies of negative politeness 1. Don’t presume or assume 2.

Don’t presume or assume Question/hedge Hedges addressed to Felicity Conditions .

1. . Question/hedge 2. That’s just how it is. in a sense/in a way/as it were/in all probability/I shouldn’t be surprised/it seems to Don’t presume or assume: me/don’t you agree. if you can/if it closes/if Hedges addressed to Felicity Conditions it isn’t already closed/if you want. Close the window.

Don’t presume or assume Hedges addressed to Cooperativeness (Quality) .

Don’t presume or assume: Hedges addressed to Cooperativeness (Quality) I think you and I both know what the traffic law has to say about these traffic violations. .

As you know/is well known/you and I both know … 3. … you might say … addressed to Cooperativeness (Quality) . I think/believe/ think that … 2. Don’t My best recollection would have been/is presume or assume: Hedges 5. As I remember it … 4.1.

Don’t Coerce Be pessimistic .

1. I don’t imagine/suppose there is any chance/possibility/hope of you … 2. Perhaps you’d care to help me/for a lift. Don’t coerce: Be pessimistic .

Don’t Coerce Minimize imposition .

Okay . . Just a miute/ a second Don’t coerce: Minimize imposition I just want to ask you if I can borrow / you could lend me/ a tiny/little/single sheet of paper..

Don’t coerce Impersonalize .

1. me) 2. (I want a bite. then! (i.Let’s have a cookie. (i. me) Don’t coerce: Impersonalize .Give us a break.e.Let’s get on with dinner.Let’s stop for a bite.e. you) 3.e. so let’s stop) 4. eh? (i.

One shouldn’t do things like that. Indefinites. Okay. let’s get on with it.1. 2. Don’t coerce: Impersonalize . folks/guys.

Don’t coerce Don’t coerce: Point of view distancing .

1. 2. I was a kind of interested in knowing if … Don’t coerce: Point of view distancing . I have been wondering whether you could do me a little favor.