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THE EYES

INTRODUCTION OF EYES
O Optical instrument
O Have convex lens O Have the focal length so that

objects can be seen.

Parts of THE EYE

Cornea
A

transparent protective layer, which is located on the outer part of the eye.  Can refract LIGHT.

Aqueous Humor
 Clear, watery and transparent fluid.  Located behind the cornea.  Refract the light.

• Gives color to the eye Ex: blue, black, brown, green. • Consists of muscular diaphragm. • Controls the amount of light by dilating and constricting the pupil. • It contracts and expands the pupil.

Pupil
O Hole in the center of the iris that light

passes through. O Control the amount of light that enters the eye. O In bright light, the pupil constrict Iris muscle O In dim light, the pupil dilate

Lens
• Made of transparent, fibrous and elastic layer. • Held by the ciliary muscle  changes the shape of the lens and set the focal length. • Continues refraction and focusing onto the retina. • Have convex shape


  

Film of the eye. Rods and cones. Converts light rays and sends them to the brain (optic nerves). Your vision is best when light falls on the fovea (blind spot).

Normal Eyes
• Normal eyes can see an object clearly that is located at 25 cm to infinity. • These distances are called near and far points of normal eyes.

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Short-Sighted (Myopia)
• Can see nearby objects clearly but distant objects appear blurred. • Can be helped by concave lens

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Example:
O The far point for a man with short-

sightedness is 318 cm. His glasses lens is 2 cm in front of his eye,determine : a.The focal length that match to the person b.The optical power of the glasses.

 Can’t

see close object clearly.  The near point of farsighted patients is more than 25 cm.  Can be helped by convex lens.

The near point of a person with farsightedness is 48cm. In order to read a book 25 cm away (normal distance) , he uses a glasses. If the lens is 2 cm in front of his eye, determine the focal length and the optical power of the glasses !

 Cannot see the object that are too close or too far.

 Its because its near point is more than 25 cm and the

furthest point is less than infinity.  Assisted with two types of lens.

CONVEX LENS
• Used when viewing near objects. EXAMPLE: While reading book or identifying the person in front of them.

• Used when viewing distant object EXAMPLE: SEE THE MOUNTAINS OR A CAR FROM A DISTANCE

*Suppose the distance from the lens of an

eye to the retina is 2 cm. Find the optical power of the eye accommodation when seeing a very distant and very close object.

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

LET’S PRACTICE !
 Anita

is said to suffer from myopia with far point 150 cm. what is the power of the spectacle lens in order that Anita can view object in far distance ?
Known: 𝑆𝑜 = ∞ 𝑆𝑖 = −150𝑐𝑚 Asked : P=? → 𝑓 =?
1 1 1 = + 𝑓 𝑆𝑜 𝑆𝑖 1 1 1 = +𝑓 ∞ 150 1 1 =0+𝑓 150

 

 𝑓

= -150 cm = -1.5m 𝑃

=

1 𝑓

=

1 −1.5

=- D

2 3

Self Practice
 A sufferer of far sighted has near point of 50 cm. What is the power of glasses lens that must be used so that the man can see things normally?
 

Known: 𝑆𝑜 = 25𝑐𝑚 𝑆𝑖 = −50𝑐𝑚 Asked : P=? → 𝑓 =?

1 1 1  = + 𝑓 𝑆𝑜 𝑆𝑖 1 1 1 = +𝑓 25 50 1 2−1 1 = = 𝑓 50 50 𝑓

= 50 cm = + 0.5m 𝑃

= =

1 𝑓

1 = 0.5

+ 2D

Self Practice
• Suppose that an eye-lens is on 2.5 cm in front of retina. Find the focal length and optical power, if the eye is used to observe an object on : a. the near point of the normal eye b. infinity c. range of optical power of eye accommodation
a. near point
1 1 1 = + 𝑓 𝑆𝑜 𝑆𝑖 1 1 1 = + 𝑓 25 2.5 1 1+10 11 = = 𝑓 25 25 25 25 𝑓= cm = m 11 1100 1 1100 𝑃1 = = = 44 D 𝑓 25

b. infinity

1 1 1 = + 𝑓 𝑆𝑜 𝑆𝑖 1 1 1 = + 𝑓 ∞ 2.5 1 1 = cm 𝑓 2.5 1 𝑓

c. range optical power 𝑃

1 -𝑃2 = 44 D – 40D = 4 D. 𝑓

= 2.5cm = 𝑃

2 = =

25 m 1000 1000 = 40 D 25