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Presenter’s Name

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Azhari Fithrah

What Is Groundwater?

SIKLUS HIDROLOGI .

SIKLUS HIDROLOGI .

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SIKLUS HIDROLOGI .

out of the atmosphere. • Precipitation: The discharge of water. • and why it occurs ? • Transpiration : The process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves. where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. in liquid or solid state.• Evaporation: The process by which water is changed from liquid to a gas or vapor. generally upon a land or water surface . • Evapotranspiration: The process by which water vapor is discharged to the atmosphere as a result of evaporation from the soil and transpiration by plants • Condensation : The process in which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water.

• Surface runoff: Precipitation runoff which travels over the soil surface to the nearest stream channel • Streamflow: The movement of water in a natural channel. such as a river • Infiltration: The downward movement of water from the land surface into soil or porous rock • Ground-water discharge: The movement of water out of the ground • Spring: Place where a concentrated discharge of ground water flows at the ground surface .

with no intermediate liquid stage .• Sublimation : The conversion between the solid and the gaseous phases of matter.

• Ground water is water held within the interconnected openings of saturated rock beneath the land surface. Soil and rock act as giant sponges full of tiny pores and cracks that are usually less than millimetres in size. these holes are full of water. Below the water table. . This is groundwater. • Rain and snowmelt infiltrate the ground.

Banyaknya kandungan airtanah di suatu daerah tergantung pada : • Iklim terutama curah hujan • Vegetasi • Topografi • Litologi • Derajat porositas batuan • Struktur geologi • Kondisi lingkungan .

Distribusi Vertikal Airtanah .

Soil water zone Zone of aeration Soil water intermediate zone Pellicular dan gravitational water Suspended water (vadose water) capillary zone Capillary water mat Zone of saturation Groundwater Bedrock .

Faktor pengontrol infiltrasi a. • gravitasi dan • vegetasi .l : • karakter hidrolik material • kemiringan lereng.

Sifat Batuan Terhadap Airtanah • Akuifer • Akuiklud • Akuifug • Akuitard .

Jenis Akifer • Unconfined aquifer • Confined aquifer • Leakage aquifer • Perched aquifer .

• air yang keluar secara alamiah pada suatu tempat dari celah yang tertentu (Ries).Mata Air (Springs) • pemusatan dari pengeluaran airtanah yang muncul pada permukaan tanah sebagai arus dari aliran air (Todd & Tolman). .

Jenis mata air • Depression springs • Contact springs • Farcture artesian springs • Solution springs .

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