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scope. methodology. . rather it is a record of the research process. limitations and finally. objective(s). hypotheses. findings. – The last stage of a marketing research process. •The researcher has to convince the client [and others who may read the report] that the research findings can be acted on for their own benefit. recommendations of a research project to others. – It is more than a summary of findings.RESEARCH REPORT •A research report is a written document or oral presentation based on a written document that communicates the purpose..

research managers or other people familiar with and interested in the technicalities such as research design.TYPES OF RESEARCH REPORT •Two types of reports:– Technical Report: suitable for a target audience of researchers. statistical details etc. . sampling methods. – Popular Report: suitable for a more general audience. The writing style is designed to facilitate easy and rapid reading and understanding of the research findings and recommendations.. interested mainly in the research findings as it is nontechnical in nature.


believed. •the interpretation of the results of data analysis in light of: – the marketing research problem investigated..THE FIRST STEP IN THE PROCESS INVOLVES. .. •The research report is a means of communication that can be understood. – and the research design and methodology followed. and acted upon by the decision maker. trusted (by everyone who is likely to be a stakeholder in the research)..

conclusions. and recommendations with the key decision makers. . – Should present the findings in such a way that they can be used directly as input into decision making. – Necessary to ensure that the report meets the client's needs and is ultimately accepted. •The entire marketing research project: – should be summarized in a single written report or in several reports addressed to different readers.BEFORE WRITING THE REPORT… • The researcher should discuss: The major findings.

the researcher should assist the client in understanding the report. •The client should be given adequate time to read the report. . implementing the findings. and evaluating the research process in retrospect. undertaking further research. an oral presentation supplements the written report. – If necessary.ORAL PRESENTATION •Generally.

– The personality. However. expertise.REPORT FORMAT •No universally accepted standard format or style for research writing. . the research report closely resembles the steps of the marketing research process. Different researchers may prepare their reports differently. background. and responsibility of the researcher and those of the decision maker for whom the report is written interact to give each report a unique character. – Report formats are likely to vary with the nature of the project itself.

Statement of the problem Approach to the problem .MOST RESEARCH REPORTS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS           Title page Letter of transmittal Table of contents List of tables List of graphs List of appendices List of exhibits Executive summary: a. Recommendations Introduction: a. Background to the problem b. Major findings b. Conclusions c.

Statistical output c. Plan of data analysis Results Limitations and caveats Conclusions and recommendations Appendix: a. Lists. Questionnaire development and pretesting g. Information needs c. Type of research design b. Scaling techniques f. Sampling techniques h. Data collection from primary sources e.      Research design: a. Data collection from secondary sources d. Field work Data analysis: a. Questionnaires and forms b. Methodology b. .

he or she may analyze the overall national sample followed by State separate analysis for each of the States. •may be presented in several chapters of the report. . – For example. •The results may then be presented in State form chapters [one overall plus State based] instead of only one..THE RESULTS.. may perform the data analysis in State based stages: •First. an Indian researcher conducting a national survey.

•It should be well organized.REPORT WRITING I •Effective report writing is an art. – Adherence to study objectives: A research report must show that the research objectives have been accomplished. ability to understand as well as the circumstances under which they will read the report and how they will use it. . – Easy to follow: The most basic characteristic of a good report is that it is easy to follow. Headings and sub-headings should be used for different topics and subtopics respectively. and clearly and lucidly written. logically structured. •Some basic points to note in writing a report. – Readers: The report should take into account the level of readers' technical sophistication. their interest in the project.

•Selectivity: A researcher must use his or her discretion in deciding what should be included in the report. results. •Concise: A report should be concise. and attractive binding. good typing. . Yet brevity should not be achieved at the expense of completeness. and conclusions of the project. •Presentation: The report should be professionally done with quality paper. – Should accurately present the methodology. without slanting the findings to conform to the expectations of management.REPORT WRITING II •Objective: Report writing should always be guided by objectivity.

– If the table presents secondary data. – If necessary.REPORT WRITING III • Visual aids: Key information presented in the text of a research report should be reinforced with tables. – The arrangement of the data item should emphasize the most important aspect of the data being presented. . the source(s) must be cited clearly. • Guidelines for Tables: Statistical tables are a vital part of the report and deserve special attention. maps. explanations. comments etc. pictures. graphs. – Basis or unit of measurement should be clearly stated to facilitate understanding. – Every table should have a number and brief but clear title. and other visual devices. should be provided as footnotes.

The purpose of your report. you must carefully structure your findings. The thesis statement will be useful here. Literature Review . outlining the various themes that you discovered in the research regarding the topic. Some brief details of your methods and an outline of the structure of the report. placing your research appropriately in the chronology.If asked to do a separate literature review. you could write in a thematic way. Alternately. Background information may include a brief review of the literature already available on the topic so that you are able to ‘place’ your research in the field.DRAFT THE BODY OF YOUR REPORT   Introduction . you will need to state where your research fits . It may be useful to do a chronological format where you discuss from the earliest to the latest research. Again.

Sometimes you could indicate some areas where your research has limits or where further research would be useful. You should not include any new material in this section.This is where you indicate what you found in your research. It will relate back to your literature review and your introductory thesis statement.This is where you discuss the relevance of your results and how your findings fit with other research in the area.This is a summary of the most significant results/findings. Recommendations are usually listed in order of priority . You give the results of your research. Conclusion . Recommendations .    Results .This includes suggestions for what needs to be done as a result of your findings. but do not interpret them. Discussion .

and graphs.e.g. → It is usually written in a ‘passive’ voice (e. the participants were asked to fill in the questionnaire attached in Appendix 1) rather than an ‘active’ voice (e.  . what you did and how you did it. charts. It must be clearly written so that it would be easy for another researcher to duplicate your research if they wished to.g. Ensure that they are relevant to the research and add substance to the text rather than just duplicating what you have said. I asked the participants to fill in the questionnaire attached in Appendix 1).Here you clearly outline what methodology you used in your research i. → Clearly reference any material you have used from other sources. Clearly label and number any diagrams.Methodology . You do not include or discuss the results here.

– Body language and descriptive gestures are also quite useful. help presentation. charts. tables. and interact with them. maps etc. – However. particularly statistical tables. people may seek clarification. Too many visual aids. He or she should be natural. – The speaker must be patient and should not show signs of anger or frustration. •Carefully selected visual aids such as graphs. . •A good presentation does not mean a lengthy presentation. could often be boring and may not serve any purpose. •During oral presentation. establish eye contact with the audience.ORAL PRESENTATION •Should be carefully prepared keeping the audience in mind.

If you include appendices they must be referred to in the body of the report and must have a clear purpose for being included.These should add extra information to the report. Each appendix must be named and numbered.This includes all references used in your report or referred to for background information.  Appendices .  . This must be done using the referencing convention specified by your lecturer/tutor.DRAFT THE SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL References or Bibliography .