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Interface Buses

COMPUTERS IN INTRUMENTATION

Early days: Process monitoring and control – limited to large plants Computer Hardware: Computing power, Bus-based computers

Advancements in Hardware:
Mainframes  Miniframes  Personal Computer (desktop) Bus based computer architecture PC and AT buses like VESA & EISA In 1993, Intel came up with a standard called Peripheral Components Interconnect (PCI) most commonly used even today

PCs came with Interrupt (IRQ) and Direct Memory Access (DMA) structure permitting fast data transfers with peripherals

Development of Buses allowed easy interfacing Buses are shared data highways on which data. etc). Buses: Internal to computer (UNIBUS.. i. to connect 12 instruments to 5 different computers required 12x5=60 unique ways.g. making it possible to add additional modules in a simple and systematic manner.etc.. PCI. Firewire.. Earlier each interface problem was unique.e. GPIB. .) or External (e. ISA. commands. move and are shared by various components. USB. etc.

GUI based OS: 1990. .SOFTWARE Earliest operating systems such as VAX-VMS dominated the control applications UNIX and its variants HPUX – control applications Microsoft: DOS: Integration of device drivers in OS – big Advantage Windows: S/W for additional user hardware integrated into the overall system through drivers developed for specific devices.

INTERFACES Different types of devices require interfaces of different capabilities Led to development of various buses and interfaces for different purposes coexisting in the same system In computer interfacing – Internal computer buses and interface standard play a role Internal bus: used to integrate add-on h/w into PC and act as platform for standardized h/w. 3 Buses are extended to cater to instrumentation VME  extended to VXI (VEM extension for instrumentation) PCI  extended to PXI (PCI extension for instrumentation) SCSI bus for peripherals  SCXI standard .

etc.INTERFACE STANDARDS To connect external devices to the computer Serial Connection: Sequential transfer of data Recommend Standard No. transfer is fast . GPIB Connection: separate line for each bit. Universal Serial Bus (USB). 232 (RS232C). Firewire.

) and actuators (switches. analysis and control done through s/w . valves. motors. etc) All signal handling.CRUX OF THE VI Progressively moving the intelligence of the instrument into software H/w reduced to actual sensors (thermocouples. etc. accelerometers.

one can  Build the panel.LabView: G programming language Program Window Panel Window Available Facilities : Control Elements Function Elements Using G Program. Controls and Displays  Assign signal manipulation and signal analysis tasks  Wire the control functions and the displays  Make connectivity with the A/D card I/O channels  Execute the commands in Real Time on the signal .

A VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMS THE SAME JOB AS REAL INSTRUMENT Virtual Data Logger Virtual CRO Virtual FFT Analyser Virtual Signal Generator Virtual Multimeter Virtual Frequency Meter But. additionally. it gives more Flexibility Removes Ambiguities User defined Controls Low Cost Actual numerical values are available anytime for import/export Add on Software for control and specific requirements Avoid redundancy Reusability Reconfigurability .

Ramp and chirp pattern .SOME TYPICAL TASKS THAT CAN BE PERFORMED ON THE SIGNAL Measurement: AC. DC Amplitude and frequency estimate Amplitude and phase spectrum Harmonic Analyser Transfer Function Signal Generation: Arbitrary Wave Amplitude and Phase Spectrum White Noise Impulse.

Bus Interface • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) • VESA local bus – (Video Electronics Standards Association) • PCI (peripheral component interconnect) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) • AGP (Advanced Graphics Port) .

VXI. or connected by switched hubs. PCMCIA. • Modern computer buses can use both parallel and bit-serial connections. . and LXI. PCI. PXI.Latest PC Interface Buses • Most common and latest PC interface buses are such as USB. and can be wired in either multidrop or daisy-chain topology.

• Describe operation of the USB and develop some short programs that transfer data. • Explain how the AGP increases the efficiency of the graphics subsystem. VESA local. VESA local. • Develop simple interfaces to the ISA. and PCI buses. . and PCI buses.Slide Objectives • Detail pin connections and signal connections on the ISA. VESA local and PCI buses. • Program interface places on boards that connect to the ISA.

• 32-bit printer circuit cards are more often PCI. the VESA cards. now 16-bit. or in some older 486s.ISA • Been around since the start of the IBM PC (1982) • Originally an 8-bit standard. There was a 32-bit EISA (Extended). gone • Most PCs have an ISA slot on the mainboard that can accept either an 8-bit of a 16-bit ISA printed circuit card. .

. Both apps benefit from the wider bus width because the data transfer rates for these devices are high. • Most common application for EISA bus is as a disk controller or as a video graphics adapter.ISA / EISA / VESA local • Clocking speed 8 MHZ too slow!! • EISA -32-bit modification of ISA (386-PentiumII had 32-bit data buses) • Both ISA and EISA run at 8 MHz – too SLOW! • VESA and PCI both run at 33 MHz.

VESA local • Much better approach to 32-bit interfacing • Common for video and disk interfaces to the 486 PC .

but as an interface for older 8-bit and 16-bit interface cards). – Has plug and play(PnP) characteristics – Has the ability to function with a 64-bit data bus. (Most systems also have ISA. • Has replaced VESA bus. but would operate only at a 33MHz rate with Pentium (half the speed of the redient local bus of the Pentium) .PCI • PCI -Peripheral Component Interconnect • Only bus found in the newest Pentium II systems. • Most often used for interfacing I/O components – Memory could be interfaced.

located in a small memory device on the PCI interface. • Information in registers allows computer to automatically configure the PCI card. . that contain information about the board. • This memory can provide PnP characteristics to the ISA bus or any other bus.Plug and Play • PCI interface contains a series of registers.

PCI Architecture .

Bus Structure of the Pentium II AGP Bus 66MHz AGP Video Pentium II Processor Local Bus 66MHz or 100Mhz 440LX or 440BX Chip Set Memory PCI Bus 33MHz or 66 MHz I/O Local Frame Buffer PIIX4 Bridge I/O USB Bus 12Mbps ISA Bus 8 MHz I/O I/O .

INTELLIGENT! • Capable of grouping single data requests into bursts and then exchanging those bursts with memory and I/O devices. • Ability to transfer an unlimited number of bytes in a single burst – even though processor itself may be limited to a much smaller size (one cache line) – Each PCI device has a latency timer that defines longest time that device is allowed to control the bus.PCI Bridge • Not just buffers between PCI and processor busses. .

• A PIC transaction takes place between a master (a device takes control of the system buses). and a target (a device that only responds to access requests).PCI Bus Operation • The data bus lines use a multiplexing scheme to which connector pins are multiplexed as address and data pins. .

.BUS Access • Read cycle takes three clock pulses – Output address – Switch lines from address to data – Transfer data • Write cycle – Address lines do not have to turned around – Only requires two clock cycles.

– – – – – – – INTA sequence I/O read access I/O write access Memory read access Memory write access Dual addressing cycle (64 bits on 32-bit data bus) Line memory read access (line of cache (greater than 32 bits) .Bus Commands • 16 different commands (commands are multiplexed on the C/BE3’-C/BE0’) lines and output during the address phase of each bus cycle.

DMA and interrupts • Bus Master concept of PCI eliminates necessity for DMA controller (still used) • Bus master shuts down system board buses and communicates with adapters via bus slots. .

64 bytes header (type of card. Universal adapters can work in either slot • Each PCI card contains a 256-byte configuration memory. manufacturer.3V. cache line size in 32-byte units. 5 V and Universal • Separate slot arrangements for 3.PCI Adapters • Support 3.3 and 5v. . current status of card. revision level. Remaining bytes are card specific. and bus latency).

.Plug and Play • Configuration memory of units on PCI bus allow system to scan through devices and assign each device a unique base address and interrupt level.

CD_ROM players.I/O Buses • SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) – Parallel bus used to peripheral such as hard drives. – Allows parallel processing . – 1 to 10MB/sec (PCI around 275MB/sec transfer rate) – Intelligent bus • Accepts high level commands from processor and then transfer information without host participation. tape drives.

7) • Devices connected in a daisy chain fashion with terminating plugs connected to each end of cable. .SCSI • Can accomodate 16 devices(SCSI-3) • Must have host adapter (typically no.

modems. .5 Mbps slow speed operation. sound cards.USB (Universal Serial Bus) • Current ISA sound cards use internal PC power supply (generates a large amount of noise). • Apps: keyboards. • Data transfer rates are 12Mbps full speed. 1. simple videoretrieval devices. • USB allows sound cards to have their own power supply • Easy to connect • Access to up to 127 different connections through a 4 connection serial cable.

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.Physical Topology is point-to-point tree.

. A USB device can be just a function. or both a hub and a function. just a hub.Root: primary controller Hub: allows the connection of multiple USB devices Endpoint: Source or sink of information within a USB device A USB device that contains an ENDPOINT (source/sink of data) is called a ‘function’.

.Physical connection is point to point.

• Characteristics of connection make up pipe – – – – – – Speed Direction Required bandwidth Error-handling capability Transfer type Maximum packet size • The endpoint of the device communicates with the host. (endpoint 0 is for device initialization and configuration) .Pipes • When attaching to a hub. host assigns a device an address.

and CRC .Bus Protocol • • • • Data transferred in packets Synchronous serial format Clock signal is encoded into data pattern Packets are variable length Includes: – Sync field. packet id. Information field.

music) .Data transfers • • • • Control Bulk (Text data for printer) Interrupt (mouse clicks) Isochronous (voice.

USB Connector • 4 pins –5v – -Data – +Data – Ground • Biphase signals – When +data are at 5.0V. -data are at zero volts and vice versa .

Half duplex Full Duplex: data transmission can occur in both directions at the same time Half Duplex: data transmission can go in only one direction at a time .Physical Interface Differential Signaling.

USB Data • Biphase signals generated using a differential line driver (transceiver) with noise suppression • Uses NRZI encoding (non-return to zero. inverted) for transmitting packets. . – Signal level does not change for transmission of logic 1s – Signal level is inverted for every change to a logic 0 • Uses bit-stuffing for synchronization – A logic 0 is added after 6 continuous 1s in a row • Data is transmitted LSB to MSB.

token. NAK before transferring additional data packets • Sync (80h). NAK tokens used to coordinate transfer of packets. PID sent first • 4 Types of Packets (Data. handshaking.USB Commands • Stop and Wait Flow control used – host must wait for ACK. and start-of-frame) • 2 types of CRC used (5-bit and 16-bit) • ACK. .

PID Codes PID Name Type Description E1h D2h C3h A5h 69h 5Ah 4Bh 3Ch 2Dh 1Eh OUT ACK Data0 SOF IN NAK Data1 PRE Setup Stall Token Handshake Data Token Token Handshake Data Special Token Token Host->function transaction Receiver accepts packet Data packet PID even Start of frame Function -> host transaction Receiver does not receive packet Data packet PID odd Host preamble Setup command Stalled .

1023 bits Data 16 bits CRC16 PID .Types of Packets on USB Token 8 bits PID 7 bits ADDR 4 bits ENDP 5 bits CRC5 Start of Frame Packet 8 bits PID Data Packet 11 bits Frame Number 5 bits CRC5 8 bits PID Handshake Packet 8 bits 1 .

Accelerated Graphics Port • Designed specifically to all high-speed transfers between video card frame buffer and system memory. • Maximum data transfer is 528MBps(2X) • Max data rate for 4x system is 1GBps • PCI bus has max data rate of 100MBps . • Operates at bus clock frequency of the microprocessor.