You are on page 1of 51

Systems Analysis and Design with UML Version 2.

0
Chapter 4 Project Management
Alan Dennis, Barbara Wixom, and David Tegarden

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Slide 1

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for redistribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

Slide 2

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Management
Chapter 4

Slide 3

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Key Definitions
Project management is the process of planning and controlling the development of a system within a specified timeframe at a minimum cost with the right functionality. A project manager has the primary responsibility for managing the hundreds of tasks and roles that need to be carefully coordinated.
Slide 4 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

IDENTIFYING PROJECT SIZE

Slide 5

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Estimation Trade-offs
Size(what it does)
Function points Lines of code

Time (when the project will be finished)


Months

Cost
Slide 6 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Trade-offs
In the beginning of the project, the manager needs to estimate the factors. The estimates developed at the start of a project are based on a range of possible value, and gradually become more specific.
Slide 7 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Two Basic Ways to Estimate the Time


The amount of time spent in the planning phase to predict the time required for the entire project.
We take the time spent in the planning phase and use industry standard percentage to calculate estimates for the other SDLC phase From the past experiences

Function Point Approach


Slide 8 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Estimating a Project Based on Industry Information


Planning Industry Standard For Business Applications Analysis Design Implementation

15%

20%

35%

30%

Time Required in Person Months

Actual Estimated 4 5.33

Estimated Estimated 9.33 8

Slide 9

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Function Point Approach


It is more complex and has three steps:

The project manager estimates the size of the project - - the number of lines of code the new system required The size estimate is then converted into the amount of effort required to develop - the number of person-month The estimated effort is then converted into an estimated schedule time - the number of months

Slide 10

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time Estimation Using a More Complex Approach

Slide 11

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Step 1. Estimate System Size


A function point is a measure of program size based on the systems number and complexity of inputs, outputs, queries, files, and programs interfaces.

Slide 12

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Function Point Estimation -- Step One


Complexity Description Inputs Outputs Queries Files Program Interfaces 19 Low __x 3 4x4 __x 3 __x 7 __x 5 Medium __x 4 10 x 5 __x 4 __x 10 __x 7 High __x 6 5x7 __x 6 __x 15 __x 10 Total ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

TOTAL UNADJUSTED FUNCTION POINTS


Slide 13

__338__

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Function Points Estimation -- Step Two


5
Data Communications Heavy Use Configuration Transaction Rate End-User efficiency Complex Processing Installation Ease Multiple sites Performance Distributed functions On-line data entry On-line update Reusability Operational Ease Extensibility
Slide 14

Scale of 1 to __3___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __2___ __2___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __7___

Project Complexity (PC)

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Function Points Estimation

Adjusted Project Complexity = .65 + (0.01 * Project Complexity) Note: .65= very simple system; 1.00 = normal Total Adjusted Function Points =
Adjusted Project Complexity * TUFP

Slide 15

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Function Point Estimation -- Step 3


Processing Complexity (PC): ____7____ (From Step 2) Adjusted Processing Complexity (APC) = 0.65 + (0.01 * __7__ ) = 0.72 Total Adjusted Function Points: __0.72___ * _338___ = 243 (TUFP -- From Step 1)

Slide 16

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Converting Function Points to Lines of Code: Step 4


Language
C COBOL JAVA C++ Turbo Pascal Visual Basic PowerBuilder HTML Packages (e.g., Access, Excel)

LOC/Function Code Point


130 110 55 50 50 30 15 15 10-40

Source: Capers Jones, Software Productivity Research


Slide 17 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

LOC = TAFP * LOC/FCP

Step 2. Estimate Effort


Effort is a function of size and production rate (how much work someone can complete in a given time). COCOMO model
It is used to convert a lines-ofcode estimate to a person-month estimate.
Slide 18 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

COCOMO Estimation Calculation


Effort (in PersonMonths)
Example:

1.4 * thousands-oflines-of-code

If LOC = 2000 Then... Effort = (1.4 * 2000) =

28 Person Months

Slide 19

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Step 3. Estimate Time Required


Rule of thumb for estimation
Schedule Time (months)

=
3.0 * person-months1/3

Slide 20

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Average staffing = Effort/Schedule time.


Average Staffing = 37.42 personmonths/10 months = 4 persons.

Slide 21

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

CREATING AND MANAGING THE WORKPLAN

Slide 22

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Workplan is a dynamic schedule that records and keeps track of all of the tasks that need to be accomplished over the course of the project. It lists each task, along with important information
Slide 23 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

A Workplan Example
Work Plan Information Example

Name of task Start date Completion date Person assigned Deliverable(s) Completion status Priority Resources needed Estimated time Actual time
Slide 24

Perform economic feasibility Jan 05, 2001 Jan 19, 2001 Mary Smith, sponsor Cost-benefit analysis Open High Spreadsheet 16 hours 14.5 hours

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Identifying Tasks
Methodology
Using standard list of tasks

SDLC Select the steps and deliverables

Consultants or books Top-down approach


Identify highest level tasks Break them into increasingly smaller units Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

By SDLC or by product
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 25

Top Down Task Identification


Phases

Phases with high level steps

Work Plan * * * *
Slide 26

Deliverables

Estimated hours

Actual hours

Assigned To

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Tools
The Project Plan
It is a table that lists all of tasks in the work breakdown structure along with important task information

Duration of the task, the current status (open or complete), and the task dependencies.

Gantt Chart PERT Chart


Slide 27 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Gantt Chart
Action Week 2 3

10

11

12

13

Go to Library

Go to Bookstore

Select and Purchase Book

Skim Book

Write Phase One

Read Book Carefully

Write Phase Tw o

Slide 28

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Refining Estimates
Estimating an IS development project - - cost, time and what the final system will actually do follows a hurricane model.
The predictions of when and where become more and more accurate as the storms approach a cost, until they finally arrive.
Slide 29 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

As the system moves closer to completion, the accuracy and precision increase until the final system is delivered.

Slide 30

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Hurricane Model

Time
Slide 31

Project Stage
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Margins of Error in Cost and Time Estimates


Typical margins of Error for Well-done Estimates Phase Planning Deliverable System Request Project Plan System Proposal System Specification Cost (%) 400 100 50 25 time (%) 60 25 15 10

Analysis Design

Source: Boehm et al. (1995)


Slide 32 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Managing Scope
Scope creep -- a major cause of development problems (schedule and cost overruns) It happens when new requirement are added to the project after the original project scope was defined.
JAD and prototyping Formal change approval Charging for changes
Slide 33 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Timeboxing
Another approach to scope management Fixed deadline Reduced functionality, if necessary Fewer finishing touches
Slide 34 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Timeboxing Steps
1. Set delivery date Deadline should not be impossible Should be set by development group 2. Prioritize features by importance 3. Build the system core 4. Postpone unfinished functionality 5. Deliver the system with core functionality 6. Repeat steps 3-5 to add refinements and enhancement
Slide 35 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

STAFFING THE PROJECT

Slide 36

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Staffing The Project


Determining how many people should be assigned Matching peoples skills with the needs Motivating them to meet the objective Minimizing the conflict.
Slide 37 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Key Definitions
The staffing plan describes the kinds of people working on the project The project charter describes the projects objectives and rules A functional lead manages a group of analysts A technical lead oversees progress of programmers and technical staff members
Slide 38 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Staffing Attributes
Staffing levels will change over a projects lifetime Adding staff may add more overhead than additional labor Keep team size of 8-10 reporting in a hierarchical structure can reduce complexity
If more people are needed, create subteams. In this way, the project manager can keep the communication effective
Slide 39 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Increasing Complexity with Larger Teams

Slide 40

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Motivation
Assigning people isnt enough, the project managers need to motivate the people Use monetary rewards cautiously Use intrinsic rewards
Recognition Achievement The work itself Responsibility Advancement Chance to learn new skills

Slide 41

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Conflict Avoidance Strategies


Clearly define roles and project plans Hold individuals accountable Project charter listing norms and groundrules Develop schedule commitments ahead of time Forecast other priorities and their possible impact on the project
Slide 42 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

CONTROLLING AND DIRECTING THE PROJECT

Slide 43

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

CASE Tools
Initiation Analysis Design Implementation

Upper CASE

Lower CASE

Integrated CASE (I-CASE)

Slide 44

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

CASE Components
Diagrams Screen Designs

CASE Repository

Procedural Logic

Metadata

Slide 45

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Standards

The team needs to work together, and things can get confusing. Examples
Formal rules for naming files Forms indicating goals reached Programming guidelines

Can you think of more examples?


PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 46

Documentation

Project binder Table of contents Continual updating

Slide 47

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Managing Risk
Risk assessment
The process of assessing and addressing the risks that are associated with developing a project.

Actions to reduce risk


Providing training to the team

Revised assessment
Slide 48 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Classic Mistakes

Very optimistic schedule Failing to monitor schedule Failing to update schedule Adding people to a late project

Slide 49

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Summary

Project management is critical to successful development of new systems Project management involves planning, controlling and reporting on time, labor, and costs.
Slide 50 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Expanding the Domain


For more detail on project management, visit the project management institute and its special interest group on information systems:
www.pmi.org www.pmi-issig.org
Slide 51 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.