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Systems Analysis and Design with UML Version 2.

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Chapter 4 Project Management
Alan Dennis, Barbara Wixom, and David Tegarden

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Project Management
Chapter 4

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Key Definitions
Project management is the process of planning and controlling the development of a system within a specified timeframe at a minimum cost with the right functionality. A project manager has the primary responsibility for managing the hundreds of tasks and roles that need to be carefully coordinated.
Slide 4 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

IDENTIFYING PROJECT SIZE

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Estimation Trade-offs Size(what it does) Function points Lines of code Time (when the project will be finished) Months Cost Slide 6 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. . All rights reserved. Inc.

All rights reserved. The estimates developed at the start of a project are based on a range of possible value. the manager needs to estimate the factors. Slide 7 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. . and gradually become more specific. Inc.Trade-offs In the beginning of the project. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. We take the time spent in the planning phase and use industry standard percentage to calculate estimates for the other SDLC phase From the past experiences Function Point Approach Slide 8 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Inc. All rights reserved.Two Basic Ways to Estimate the Time The amount of time spent in the planning phase to predict the time required for the entire project. .

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. . Inc.33 Estimated Estimated 9.33 8 Slide 9 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.Estimating a Project Based on Industry Information Planning Industry Standard For Business Applications Analysis Design Implementation 15% 20% 35% 30% Time Required in Person Months Actual Estimated 4 5.

the number of lines of code the new system required The size estimate is then converted into the amount of effort required to develop . Inc..– the number of months Slide 10 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.Function Point Approach It is more complex and has three steps:    The project manager estimates the size of the project . .– the number of person-month The estimated effort is then converted into an estimated schedule time . All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.

.Time Estimation Using a More Complex Approach Slide 11 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. and programs interfaces.Step 1. Slide 12 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. . queries. All rights reserved. Inc. files. Estimate System Size A function point is a measure of program size based on the system’s number and complexity of inputs. outputs.

All rights reserved. .Function Point Estimation -. Inc. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.Step One Complexity Description Inputs Outputs Queries Files Program Interfaces 19 Low __x 3 4x4 __x 3 __x 7 __x 5 Medium __x 4 10 x 5 __x 4 __x 10 __x 7 High __x 6 5x7 __x 6 __x 15 __x 10 Total ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ TOTAL UNADJUSTED FUNCTION POINTS Slide 13 __338__ PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.

Function Points Estimation -.Step Two 5 Data Communications Heavy Use Configuration Transaction Rate End-User efficiency Complex Processing Installation Ease Multiple sites Performance Distributed functions On-line data entry On-line update Reusability Operational Ease Extensibility Slide 14 Scale of 1 to __3___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __2___ __2___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __0___ __7___ Project Complexity (PC) PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. . All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc.01 * Project Complexity) Note: .65 + (0. .65= very simple system. All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. 1.Function Points Estimation Adjusted Project Complexity = .00 = normal Total Adjusted Function Points = Adjusted Project Complexity * TUFP Slide 15 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.

01 * __7__ ) = 0.From Step 1) Slide 16 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.65 + (0.Function Point Estimation -. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. .Step 3 Processing Complexity (PC): ____7____ (From Step 2) Adjusted Processing Complexity (APC) = 0. Inc. All rights reserved.72___ * _338___ = 243 (TUFP -.72 Total Adjusted Function Points: __0.

Access. Excel) LOC/Function Code Point 130 110 55 50 50 30 15 15 10-40 Source: Capers Jones.Converting Function Points to Lines of Code: Step 4 Language C COBOL JAVA C++ Turbo Pascal Visual Basic PowerBuilder HTML Packages (e.g. All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Software Productivity Research Slide 17 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.. LOC = TAFP * LOC/FCP . Inc.

Estimate Effort Effort is a function of size and production rate (how much work someone can complete in a given time). COCOMO model It is used to convert a lines-ofcode estimate to a person-month estimate. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Slide 18 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.Step 2. All rights reserved. Inc. .

COCOMO Estimation Calculation Effort (in PersonMonths) Example: = 1.4 * thousands-oflines-of-code If LOC = 2000 Then.. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.4 * 2000) = 28 Person Months Slide 19 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. All rights reserved.. Inc. Effort = (1. .

Inc. All rights reserved.0 * person-months1/3 Slide 20 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.Step 3. . Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Estimate Time Required Rule of thumb for estimation Schedule Time (months) = 3.

All rights reserved. .Average staffing = Effort/Schedule time. Average Staffing = 37. Inc. Slide 21 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.42 personmonths/10 months = 4 persons.

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.CREATING AND MANAGING THE WORKPLAN Slide 22 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Inc. .

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. It lists each task. along with important information Slide 23 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Inc. All rights reserved. .Workplan is a dynamic schedule that records and keeps track of all of the tasks that need to be accomplished over the course of the project.

A Workplan Example Work Plan Information Example Name of task Start date Completion date Person assigned Deliverable(s) Completion status Priority Resources needed Estimated time Actual time Slide 24 ` Perform economic feasibility Jan 05. sponsor Cost-benefit analysis Open High Spreadsheet 16 hours 14. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. 2001 Mary Smith. . 2001 Jan 19. All rights reserved. Inc.5 hours PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.

Inc. All rights reserved.Identifying Tasks Methodology Using standard list of tasks   SDLC Select the steps and deliverables Consultants or books Top-down approach Identify highest level tasks Break them into increasingly smaller units  Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)  By SDLC or by product PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Slide 25 . Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.

. Inc.Top Down Task Identification Phases Phases with high level steps Work Plan * * * * Slide 26 Deliverables Estimated hours Actual hours Assigned To PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. the current status (open or complete). Gantt Chart PERT Chart Slide 27 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. and the task dependencies. Inc. .Tools The Project Plan It is a table that lists all of tasks in the work breakdown structure along with important task information  Duration of the task. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Inc.Gantt Chart Action Week 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Go to Library Go to Bookstore Select and Purchase Book Skim Book Write Phase One Read Book Carefully Write Phase Tw o Slide 28 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. .

.cost. All rights reserved. time and what the final system will actually do follows a hurricane model. until they finally arrive. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Slide 29 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.Refining Estimates Estimating an IS development project . Inc. . The predictions of when and where become more and more accurate as the storms approach a cost.

All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Slide 30 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. . Inc. the accuracy and precision increase until the final system is delivered.As the system moves closer to completion.

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. . Inc. All rights reserved.The Hurricane Model Time Slide 31 Project Stage PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.

(1995) Slide 32 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. All rights reserved.Margins of Error in Cost and Time Estimates Typical margins of Error for Well-done Estimates Phase Planning Deliverable System Request Project Plan System Proposal System Specification Cost (%) 400 100 50 25 time (%) 60 25 15 10 Analysis Design Source: Boehm et al. . Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Inc. JAD and prototyping Formal change approval Charging for changes Slide 33 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. .a major cause of development problems (schedule and cost overruns) It happens when new requirement are added to the project after the original project scope was defined.Managing Scope Scope creep -. All rights reserved.

Timeboxing Another approach to scope management Fixed deadline Reduced functionality. Inc. . if necessary Fewer “finishing touches” Slide 34 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.

Set delivery date Deadline should not be impossible Should be set by development group 2. Inc.Timeboxing Steps 1. Prioritize features by importance 3. Deliver the system with core functionality 6. All rights reserved. . Build the system core 4. Postpone unfinished functionality 5. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Repeat steps 3-5 to add refinements and enhancement Slide 35 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.

All rights reserved. . Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Inc.STAFFING THE PROJECT Slide 36 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.

. Inc. Slide 37 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.Staffing The Project Determining how many people should be assigned Matching people’s skills with the needs Motivating them to meet the objective Minimizing the conflict. All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.

Inc. All rights reserved. .Key Definitions The staffing plan describes the kinds of people working on the project The project charter describes the project’s objectives and rules A functional lead manages a group of analysts A technical lead oversees progress of programmers and technical staff members Slide 38 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.

. All rights reserved. create subteams.Staffing Attributes Staffing levels will change over a project’s lifetime Adding staff may add more overhead than additional labor Keep team size of 8-10 reporting in a hierarchical structure can reduce complexity If more people are needed. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Inc. the project manager can keep the communication effective Slide 39 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. In this way.

All rights reserved. .Increasing Complexity with Larger Teams Slide 40 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Inc. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. . the project managers need to motivate the people Use monetary rewards cautiously Use intrinsic rewards Recognition Achievement The work itself Responsibility Advancement Chance to learn new skills Slide 41 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.Motivation Assigning people isn’t enough. All rights reserved. Inc.

Conflict Avoidance Strategies      Clearly define roles and project plans Hold individuals accountable Project charter listing norms and groundrules Develop schedule commitments ahead of time Forecast other priorities and their possible impact on the project Slide 42 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. . Inc. All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.

All rights reserved. . Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Inc.CONTROLLING AND DIRECTING THE PROJECT Slide 43 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.

Inc. All rights reserved. . Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.CASE Tools Initiation Analysis Design Implementation Upper CASE Lower CASE Integrated CASE (I-CASE) Slide 44 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.

Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. . All rights reserved. Inc.CASE Components Diagrams Screen Designs CASE Repository Procedural Logic Metadata Slide 45 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.

and things can get confusing. Examples Formal rules for naming files  Forms indicating goals reached  Programming guidelines   Can you think of more examples? PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Inc. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Slide 46 .Standards   The team needs to work together. All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved.Documentation    Project binder Table of contents Continual updating Slide 47 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

Actions to reduce risk Providing training to the team Revised assessment Slide 48 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. All rights reserved. .Managing Risk Risk assessment The process of assessing and addressing the risks that are associated with developing a project. Inc. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons.

Inc. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.Classic Mistakes     Very optimistic schedule Failing to monitor schedule Failing to update schedule Adding people to a late project Slide 49 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. .

and costs. labor. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. . Slide 50 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis. controlling and reporting on time.Summary   Project management is critical to successful development of new systems Project management involves planning. Inc.

pmi.org Slide 51 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis.Expanding the Domain For more detail on project management. . All rights reserved. Wixom & Tegardem Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2001 © John Wiley & Sons. visit the project management institute and its special interest group on information systems: www. Inc.org www.pmi-issig.