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Fossil Fuels

Coal Industry

Formation of Coal .

• Anaerobic (without oxygen) decay is much slower than aerobic decay. • The bacterial decay rate is reduced because the available oxygen in organic-rich water is completely used up by the decaying process. . the accumulation of plant debris exceeds the rate of bacterial decay of the debris. • In such an environment.Formation of Coal • The formation of coal begins in a waterlogged environment (swamps and bogs) where plant debris accumulated.

to anthracite coal. . • Takes millions of years to convert peat to anthracite caol. lignite. bituminous coal. sub-bituminous coal.Formation of Coal • The stages of this trend proceed from plant debris through peat.

000 BTU/lb 15.Ranks of Coal Lignite Subbituminous 9.000 BTU/lb 7000 BTU/lb Formation Conditions Time of Formation %C .000 BTU/lb Bituminous Anthracite 12.

Lignite • Lignite is a relatively young coal deposit that was not subjected to extreme heat or pressure. • Lignite is crumbly and has high moisture content. . • Lowest rank of coal with the lowest energy content.

Subbituminous • Sub bituminous coal typically contains 35-45 percent carbon. compared to 25-35 percent for lignite. . – Thus is has a higher heating value than lignite.

Bituminous Coal • Bituminous coal contains 45-86 percent carbon. . and has two to three times the heating value of lignite.

Anthracite • Anthracite contains 86-97 percent carbon and its heating value is slightly higher than bituminous coal. • Low amount of Sulfur makes this a clean during coal. .

Coal Grade • Grade is measure of the amount of contaminants (“ash”. . • Some of the ash contains trace elements which are toxic and/or radioactive. • Common sources of ash include wind blown dust. • A low grade coal has a high ash content (>7%). sulfur and trace elements) found in the coal. and volcanic ash.

– Common in Western U. Coals formed during the Pennsylvanian Period • Low sulfur coal was formed from freshwater swamps. .S.Coal Grade • The presence of sulfur also lowers the grade of the coal.S formed during the Paleocene Epoch. – Common in Eastern U. – Sulfur can end up contributing to smog and acid rain upon combustion • Coal that was formed from swamps covered by sea (salt) water contain high amount of sulfur.

Major Players • • • • • • • • • • • • • Central Coalfields Limited Adani group Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited Coal India Limited Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Limit Mahanadi Coalfields Limited Neyveli Lignite Corporation North Eastern Coalfields Northern Coalfields Limited Singareni Collieries Company Usha Martin South Eastern Coalfields Limited Tata Steel .

• When the deposit is more than 100 feet below the surface the underground method is used.Coal Mining • Mining methods are often dictated by the type and location of the coal deposit. . • Coal is mined either by underground tunneling (Underground Mining) or by removing or "stripping" the covering rocks (Surface or Strip Mining).

Coal Mining Methods .



cement and other heavy industries. .Customers: • The Indian coal industry is the world’s third largest • Around 70% of the total production is used for electricity generation • And the remaining by the steel.

Coalgate Issue • Coal minister: Sripraksh Jaiswal • Amount is Approximately 1067303 crore rupees Persons involved • Jagathrakshan (minister of state and information) • Subodh Kant Sahai (Tourism minister) • Naveen Jindal(Congress MP) .