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INFLUENCE, POWER AND POLITICS IN ORGANIZATION

mendefinisikan konsep tentang pengaruh sosial, kekuasaan, dan politik dalam organisasi mendeskripsikan berbagai macam tipe utama dari pengaruh sosial yang ada mengidentifikasi tipe-tipe utama dari kekuasaan individual di dalam organisasi menjelaskan dua pendekatan utama untuk pengembangan kekuasaan subunit di dalam organisasi (the resource-dependency model dan the strategic contigencies model) menggambarkan kapan dan dimana politik organisasional terjadi dan berbagai macam bentuk perilaku politik yang dilakukan mengidentifikasi isu-isu utama yang berkaitan dengan penggunaan perilaku politik di dalam organisasi
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

SOCIAL INFLUENCE: A BASIC ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS

SOCIAL INFLUENCE, POWER, AND POLITICS: THEIR BASIC NATURE

Comparing Social Influence with Power and Politics

SOCIAL INFLUENCE: attempts to affect another in a desired


fashion, whether or not these are successful

POWER: the potential to successfully influence another the capacity to


change the behavior or attitudes of others in a desired manner

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS: unauthorized uses of power that


enhanced or protect your own (or your groups) personal interests
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Social Influence, Power & Politics: How They Are Related When we do something that has an effect on someone else, whether or not it is successful, we exert social influence over that person. Our capacity to exert influence over another is known as power. Unofficial uses of power to enhance or protect our self-interest, which usually are at the expense of organizational goals, are known as organizational politics.
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Social Influence, Power & Politics: How They Are Related


Motive: to satisfy personal interests

Personal Characteristics

Organizational politics

Successful influence (had desired effect)

POWER
Organizational Position Legitimate behavior
Unsuccessful influence (did not have desired effect)

Motive: to satisfy organizational goals


Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

THE CONCEPT OF POWER


POWER the capability to get someone to do something the potential to influence INFLUENCE the exercise of that capability power in action

Power is not an attribute of a particular person it is an aspect of relationship that exists between two (or more) people.

No individual or group can have power in isolation; power must exist in relation to some other person or group

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

TACTICS OF SOCIAL INFLUENCE:GETTING TO YES


RATIONAL PERSUASION: using logical arguments and facts to persuade
another that a desired result will occur INSPIRATIONAL APPEAL: arousing enthusiasm by appealing to anothers values and ideals CONSULTATION: asking for participation in decision making or planning a change INGRATIATION: the process of getting someone to do what you want by putting that person in a good mood or getting her/him to like you EXCHANGE: promising some benefits in exchange for compliance with a request PERSONAL APPEAL: appealing to anothers feelings of loyalty and friendship before making a request COALITION-BUILDING: seeking the assistance of others, or noting the support of others LEGITIMATING: pointing out ones authority to make a request, or verifying it is consistent with prevailing organizational policies and practices PRESSURE: seeking compliance by using demands, threats, or intimidation
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

WHEN ARE THESE TACTICS USED?


Social influence depends on organizational level e.g. Leaders ~ use inspirational appeals or may also use pressure, when necessary to influence their subordinates Subordinates ~ use consultation or ingratiation to influence their bosses Peers ~ use both exchange and personal appeal to influence peers General rule open, consultative techniques are believed to be more appropriate than coercive technology
The most popular techniques used at all levels are: consultation, inspirational appeal and rational persuasion. The less socially desirable forms of influence: pressure and legitimating are used much less frequently Some techniques, such as ingratiation, coalition, personal appeal, and exchange, are more likely to be used in combination with others than to be used alone
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

OTHER TACTICS OF INFLUENCE

Compliance: getting other to say yes to specific request Friendship/Liking ~ ingratiation and impression management Commitment/Consistency
1) 2) The foot in the door starting with a small request and, once this is accepted, escalating to a larger one The lowball attempting to change a deal or agreement by making it less attractive to the target person after it is negotiated

Scarcity ~ playing hard to get and the fast approaching deadline technique Reciprocity ~ door in the face tactic
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Protecting yourself from unwanted influence


1. Recognize influence tactics 2. Always question motives 3. Question influence from illegitimate sources 4. View attempts at persuasion as assaults on your personal freedom

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

WHERE DOES POWER COME FROM?


INTERPERSONAL Legitimate power Reward power Coercive power Expert power Referent power
STRUCTURAL Resources Decision making power Information power

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

INDIVIDUAL POWER: A BASIS FOR INFLUENCE


POWER the potential to influence others successfully both the things they do
and the ways they feel about something

People may influence others because of the jobs they have and their individual characteristics

POSITION POWER: INFLUENCE THAT COMES WITH THE


OFFICE power yang mengikuti posisi Legitimate, Reward, Coercive, Information Power

PERSONAL POWER: INFLUENCE THAT COMES FROM


THE INDIVIDUAL power yang mengikuti orangnya Rational persuasion, Expert, Referent, Charisma
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL POWER: A SUMMARY

INDIVIDUAL POWER

POSITION POWER LEGITIMATE POWER REWARD POWER COERCIVE POWER INFORMATION POWER

PERSONAL POWER

RATIONAL PERSUASION
REFERENT POWER EXPERT POWER

CHARISMA
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

TIPE-TIPE POWER
Legitimate power: power yang diperoleh karena diberikan Coercive power: kemampuan atau wewenang untuk
menghukum baik secara fisik maupun secara psikologis Reward power: kemampuan atau wewenang untuk memberikan dan mengontrol reward Expert power: kemampuan atau wewenang untuk memberikan atau mengontrol informasi bagi orang lain Referent power: mirip karisma karena melibatkan rasa percaya, penerimaan, kasih sayang, kesediaan untuk menjadi pengikut dan keterlibatan emosi

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

LEGITIMATE POWER
KOMITMEN
Mungkin, jika perintah dilakukan dengan sikap sopan dan baik hati

KEPATUHAN
Mungkin, jika perintah dirasakan legitimate

PENOLAKAN
Mungkin, jika bersikap arogan dan isi perintah tidak pada tempatnya

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Bagaimana sebaiknya menggunakan legitimate power?


Bersikap ramah dan baik hati Percaya diri Membangun understanding Yakini bahwa perintah yang diberikan cukup pantas Jelaskan alasan diberikannya perintah Sensitif terhadap perasaan dan keinginan bawahan

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

COERCIVE POWER
KOMITMEN
Tidak mungkin

KEPATUHAN

PENOLAKAN

Mungkin, jika Sangat mungkin, digunakan secara jika bersikap tepat dan dengan kejam dan sikap penyesalan manipulatif

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Bagaimana sebaiknya menggunakan coercive power?


Menginformasikan pada bawahan mengenai peraturan dan hukuman Memberi peringatan sebelum menghukum Melaksanakan hukuman secara konsisten dan tidak pandang bulu Memahami situasi sebelum bertindak Menjaga kredibilitas Hukuman sesuai dengan pelanggaran Menghukum secara tertutup, tidak di depan orang lain

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

REWARD POWER
KOMITMEN KEPATUHAN PENOLAKAN
Mungkin, jika Sangat mungkin, Mungkin, jika digunakan secara jika dilakukan bersikap arogan pribadi dan tidak secara mekanis dan manipulatif jelas dan impersonal

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Bagaimana sebaiknya menggunakan reward power?


Berikan perintah yang masuk akal Hanya memberikan perintah yang pantas dan etis Memberikan reward sesuai harapan bawahan Hanya memberikan reward yang kredibel

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

EXPERT POWER
KOMITMEN KEPATUHAN PENOLAKAN
Sangat mungkin, Mungkin, jika Mungkin, jika jikapersuasif dan persuasuif tapi pemimpin bawahan terlibat bawahan kurang bersikap arogan dalam cocok dengan dan menghina, pengambilan tujuan pimpinan atau bawahan keputusan menentang tujuan pimpinan
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Bagaimana sebaiknya menggunakan expert power?


Memperlihatkan kesan kepakaran (expertise) Mempertahankan kredibilitas Bertindak dengan percaya diri dan tegas Selalu menambah informasi (meningkatkan kepakaran) Hindari sikap yang merendahkan harga diri bawahan

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

REFERENT POWER
KOMITMEN KEPATUHAN PENOLAKAN
Sangat mungkin, Mungkin, jika Mungkin, jika perintah perintahdiyakini jikaperintah atau diyakini sebagai sebagai sesuatu kejadian akan sesuatu yang yang kurang berakibat buruk penting bagi penting bagi pada sang sang pemimpin sang pemimpin pemimpin

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Bagaimana sebaiknya menggunakan referent power?


Memperlakukan bawahan secara adil Membela kepentingan bawahan Sensitif terhadap kebutuhan dan perasaan bawahan menjadi model peran (contoh teladan)

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

POWER: HOW IT IS USED?

The various bases of power are completely separate and distinct. They often are used together in varying combinations. WHAT BASES OF POWER DO PEOPLE PREFER TO USE?
People generally prefer using expert power the most and coercive power the least Many forms of power tend to be used to influence subordinates, but expert power is preferred to influence peers and superiors
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

American CEOs: What are their power bases?

Source of power
Personality and leadership skills (83%) Support of the board of directors (70%) Support of senior colleagues (64%) Expertise & knowledge (43%) Management decision control (28%) Support of the financial community (9%)

a survey of more than 200 American CEOs revealed that they obtain their power primarily by cultivating the support of others at different levels of the organization (source: based on data appearing in Stewart, 1999)
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

EMPOWERMENT:THE SHIFTING BASES


POWER IN TODAYS ORGANIZATION

Empowerment
the passing of responsibility and authority from managers to employees

(Conger and Kanungo) a process of enhancing feelings of self efficacy among organizational members through the identification of conditions that foster powerless and through their removal by both formal organizational practices and informal techniques of providing efficacy information

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

The Empowerment Continuum: Relinquishing Control is a matter of degree


No Empowerment Total Empowerment
POWER GIVEN TO WORKERS

(workers are not free to make any decisions about how to do their jobs)

(workers are free to do their jobs as they wish)

None

A great deal

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Empowerment:
The key to empowering people successfully is the sharing of expert information ( as opposed to the boarding of information that has been popular in the past) When employees are empowered, their supervisors are less likely to be bosses who push people around (i.e. coercive power) and more likely to serve as teacher or facilitators who guide their teams using knowledge and experience (i.e. expert power) Most managers are afraid of relinquishing control, so empowered employees remain in the minority of most organization. Experts predict a change in that direction is coming, however, and coming fast
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Empowerment: (Conger and Kanungo)


5 stages: identifying the conditions existing in the organization that lead to feelings of powerlessness on the part of organizational members the implementation of of empowerment strategies and techniques ~ participative management, establishing goal setting programs, implementing merit based pay systems, job enrichment, etc. accomplish two objectives: (1) remove the conditions identified in the first stage as contributing to powerlessness, (2) provide self efficacy information to subordinates enhance empowerment feelings ~ increasing self efficacy strengthens effort performance expectancies Behavioral consequences of empowerment include increased activity directed toward task accomplishment

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

EMPLOYEES REACTION TO EMPOWERMENT: ALWAYS POSITIVE?

Empowerment does indeed often confer important benefits both on employees and their organizations. And these beneficial effects have occurred in companies where tall hierarchies of power tend to prevail. If empowerment can be implemented successfully in such organizations, they should be even easier to introduce in flatter ones, where people have less formally defined power.
Do employees all over the world react in the same way to empowerment? The answer is No Empowerment in low power distance and high power distance cultures

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

GROUP OR SUB UNIT POWER: STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS

THE RESOURCE-DEPENDENCY MODEL: CONTROLLING CRITICAL RESOURCES

the view that power resides within subunits able to control the greatest share of valued organizational resource
All subunits may contribute to an organization, but the most powerful are those that contribute the most important resources. Controlling the resources other departments need puts a subunit in a better position to bargain for the resources that it requires
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

The Resource Dependency Model: An Example

Important Resources

Production

Accounting

Marketing

Unimportant Resources
Resources needed Resources control

The accounting department would be more powerful than the production department or marketing department
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

THE STRATEGIC CONTINGENCIES MODEL: POWER THROUGH DEPENDENCE

the view that explains power in terms of a subunits capacity to control the activities of other subunits. A subunits power is enhanced when it can reduce the uncertainty experienced by other subunits, it occupies a central position in the organization, and its activities are highly indispensable

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

The Strategic Contingencies Model: Power Through Dependence

Contingency
Capacity to reduce uncertainty

Examples
Preventing market share decline by product development Providing future based predictions that are accurate Absorbing problems from other units

High organizational centrality

Being in an urgent or immediacy position Located at center of work flow

Power acquired by subunit and power differentials

Possessing needed skills or expertise


Nonsubstitutable and Indispensable activities

Possessing only talents that are available to complete job


Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

THE ILLUSION OF POWER


Milgrams experiments illusion of power ~ indicate that possessing power in a legitimate way is no the only way power can be exerted. Individuals who are perceived to have power may also be able to significantly influence others Power is often exerted by individuals who have only minimum or no actual power. The eye of the beholder plays an important role in the exercise of power
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS: POWER IN ACTION


Organizational Politics
Actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interest without regard for the wellbeing of others or their organizations all about actions not officially approved by an organization that are taken to influence others to meet ones personal goals Political Behavior behavior outside the normal power system, designed to benefit an individual or a sub unit
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

THE ANTECEDENTS OF POLITICS: WHY AND WHEN IT OCCURS


Personal Characteristics: high Machiavellianism, high selfmonitoring, ambition, extraversion, popularity

Personal and Organizational variables


Organizational Factors: ambiguous roles, goals, scare resources,
history of political behavior, high centralization, conflicting goals across units or subunits, organizational maturity or complexity

Politics in Human Resource Management


such as performance appraisal, personnel selection, and compensation decisions

Politics and the Organizational Life Span


the use of political practices in organizations is likely to be affected by its degree of maturity
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

POLITICAL TACTICS: WHAT FORMS DO THEY TAKE?

Gaining control over and selective use of information Cultivating a favorable impression image building ~ (1)
dressing for success, (2) associating oneself with the successful accomplishments of others, (3) simply calling attention to ones own successes and positive characteristics

Building powerful coalitions Blaming and Attacking other: finding a scapegoat Associating with powerful others Creating obligations and using reciprocity
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS: ITS EFFECTS

Adverse Effects of Organizational Politics when the level of political behavior is high in organization, job satisfaction and organizational commitment may suffer with the result that good people decide to leave and seek employment elsewhere. Clearly this is a very negative effect of organizational politics.

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

THE ETHICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

WHAT, IF ANYTHING, IS UNETHICAL ABOUT ORGANIZATIONAL POLITIS?

Political Antics Top the Most Unethical List Hiring, training, or promoting based on favouritism Allowing differences in pay due to friendships Sexual harassment Gender discrimination in promotion Using discipline in consistently Not maintaining confidentiality Gender discrimination in compensation Non-performance factors used in appraisals Arrangement with vendors leading to personal gain Gender discrimination in recruitment or hiring
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

potentially political behaviour

ASSESSING THE ETHICS OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR

The more power an individual has, the more tempted s/he is to use that power toward immoral or unethical purpose

The ethics of organizational politics must satisfy three moral principles 1. Utilitarian outcomes ~ are only selfish interests promoted? 2. Individual rights ~ are privacy rights respected? 3. Distributive justice ~ is it fair?
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

Guidelines for Determining Ethical Action

Ethical Unethical

Yes
Question 1

No

No
Question 2 Does the political activity respect the rights of the individual affected? Question 2

Yes

Will the political tactics promote purely selfish interests (as opposed to also promoting organizational goals?)

Does the activity conform to standards of equity and justice; is it fair?

Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

How to combat Organizational Politics


Abolishing organizational politics completely may be impossible but managers can limit its effect. Some of the most successful tactics are summarized here

SUGESSTION Clarify job expectation

DESCRIPTION

Political behavior is nurtured by highly ambiguous conditions. To the extent managers help reduce uncertainty (e.g. by giving precise work assignments), they can minimize the likelihood of political behavior People have difficulty fostering their own goals at the Open the expense of organizational goals when the communication communication process is open to scrutiny. It is hard to get away with process anything when the system is open for all to examine Be a good role Employees model the behavior of higher ranking model officials. Accordingly, an openly political manager may encourage subordinates to behave in the same way Do not turn a Immediately confront an employee who attempts to take blind eye to credit for anothers work. Managers who do not do so game players send a message that kind of behavior is acceptable
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM

CONTROLLING POLITICAL BEHAVIOR


Several strategies that should keep dysfunctional politics in check: 1. Ensure that there is a sufficient supply of critical resources 2. When resources are scare, introduce clear rules and regulations to specify the use of these resources 3. Establish a free flow information so that the organization is less dependent on a few people at the center of a communication wheel 4. Use effective organizational change management practices 5. Restructure team and organizational norms to reject political tactics that appear to interfere with the organizations goals 6. Select people who have a moderately strong socialized need for power and a relatively low level of Machiavellianism 7. Provide opportunities for open and candid dialogue to resolve conflicts between employees and work units 8. Get employees to monitor the workplace and actively discourage coworkers who engage in political tactics
Reni Rosari
FEB UGM