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What needs to be transported

nutrients & fuels respiratory gases

from digestive system O2 & CO2 from & to gas exchange systems: lungs, gills

intracellular waste protective agents

waste products from cells

water, salts, nitrogenous wastes (urea)

immune defenses blood clotting agents hormones

white blood cells & antibodies

regulatory molecules

All animals have:

circulatory fluid = blood tubes = blood vessels muscular pump = heart





insects, arthropods, mollusks

no separation between blood & interstitial fluid

An Open Circulatory System


closed system = higher pressures

invertebrates vertebrates

earthworms, squid, octopuses


blood confined to vessels & separate from interstitial fluid

1 or more hearts large vessels to smaller vessels material diffuses between vessels & interstitial fluid

Adaptations in closed system

number of heart chambers differs

low pressure to body

low O2 to body

high pressure & high O2 to body

Whats the adaptive value of a 4 chamber heart?

4 chamber heart is double pump = separates oxygen-rich & oxygen-poor blood; maintains high pressure

fish 2 chamber

amphibian 3 chamber

reptiles 3 chamber
Birds AND mammals! Wassssup?!

birds & mammals 4 chamber





Selective forces
body size
protection from predation bigger body = bigger stomach for herbivores

endothermy flight

can colonize more habitats

decrease predation & increase prey capture

Effect of higher metabolic rate

greater need for energy, fuels, O2, waste removal

endothermic animals need 10x energy need to deliver 10x fuel & O2 to cells

convergent evolution

Chambered heart
atrium = receive blood ventricle = pump blood out

Blood vessels
arteries = carry blood away from heart

veins = return blood to heart


capillaries = point of exchange, thin wall

capillary beds = networks of capillaries

Blood vessels
arteries arterioles capillaries
venules arterioles veins artery

venules veins

An Closed Circulatory System

IN Fish Amphibians Mammals

Circulatory Systems of Vertebrates

a. Circulation in Fish

2 Chambered Heart

Single Circuit of Circulation

(Heart to gills to body to heart)

Distributes blood throughout the body Consists of : heart, veins, arteries Fish have a 2 chambered heart

Circulation in Fish

3 chambered heart 2 atria and one undivided ventricle


adaptation to the greater oxygen needs of land animals is a more efficient circulatory system than the fish's two-chambered heart. The amphibian's threechambered heart partially mixes oxygenated with deoxygenated blood and pumps the blood throughout the body at higher pressure than does the fish's heart

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left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, and the right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body. Both the atria empty into the ventricle, the main pumping chamber of the heart. In the ventricle oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mix partially and are pumped to the lungs and the rest of the body.

Blood to body
Deoxygenated blood from body

Oxygenated blood from lungs

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the right atrium the blood enters the single ventricle. The ventricle then contracts, pumping some blood to the lungs to receive oxygen and some to the rest of the body. The blood going to the body leaves the ventricle through the conus arteriosus, a large vessel that lies against the front side of the heart
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vessel divides into a right and a left truncus arteriosus, which immediately branch again into three arches that carry blood to various parts of the body.
blood travels in veins back to the right atrium from the various regions of the body. blood returns from the lungs to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins



Copyright Cmassengale

Copyright Cmassengale

1. 2.

A three chambered heart: 2 atria and 1 ventricle A double circuit of circulation Heart to the lungs and back to the heart Heart to the body and back to the heart Single ventricle is not divided: blood from right side spills over to left. Consequence? Lungs are small, thus some blood sent to skin (cutaneous respiration)

Circulation in Mammals

2 atria 2 ventricles

1. 2.

4-chambered heart Double circuit of circulation twice through heart Heart to the lungs and back to the heart Heart to the body and back to the heart Pulmonary circuit and Systemic circuit No mixing of blood in ventricles

Comparing Circulatory Systems (Blood flow)

Large valves with tendons (anchors)

Tricuspid valve Bicuspid valve

Small valves with cusps (like shirt pockets)

Pulmonary semilunar valve Aortic semilunar valve

Is it a vessel that carries blood that is high in O2 and low in CO2? OR

Is it a vessel that carries blood away from the heart rather than toward it?

(Hint: 4 chambers, 4 valves and 2 Aortae)