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RECYCLING

Recycling
• Recycling is the process of taking up of old materials and waste products and using them to make another product to complete the cycle instead of just throwing them away. Much of the products used for packaging today like paper, plastic, glass, metal, electronics, aluminum cans are already recycled. In other words, recycling of old products could produce fresh supply of new same products.

3 Steps In Recycling
• There are 3 factors which we needs to consider while thinking about how to recycle Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. You can reduce the amount of waste by just selecting those products which do minimal waste. Choose products that can be easily recycled, can be used productively and have minimum packaging. Carry hand made bags instead of plastic bags. • Search for the products that are more environment friendly. Give away old items which are not in use or which can not be recycled to poor people. Instead of paper mail subscribe to E-paper. Reuse involves using the items in the other way rather than discarding them.

History Of Recycling
• Recycling may be a modern concept today but recycling projects throughout history were driven by basic needs, supply and demand. Recycling actually started in Great Britain but was adopted on much wider scale by America in the late 1930′s. Due to economic recession recycling became the necessity for the people. • In the 1940s, goods such as nylon, rubber and many metals were rationed and recycled to help support the war effort. In early 1970′s environmental problems and rising energy costs forced people for more recycling. Though recycling suffered earlier but its acceptance has increased year after year.

We’ve been careless up to this point with the way we’ve treated the Earth and it’s time to change. reduce. It is good for the environment. Recycling begins at home. since we are making new products from the old products which are of no use to us. When you think of recycling you should really think about the whole idea. not just the way we do things but the way we think. reuse and recycle. If you are not throwing away any of your old product and instead utilizing it for something new then you are actually recycling. .Importance of Recycling • Recycling is important in today’s world if we want to leave this planet for our future generations.

We should recycle because • • • • To Make Environment Clean Conservation of Materials To Save Energy Reduce Garbage in Landfills • Save Money .

plastic. you can easily purchase a suitable container for each recyclable product (e.What We People Can Do? • 1. Every millions of dollars are spent only in packaging of these products which ultimately go to the garbage sites. Try to avoid the use of plastic bag and plastic paper as much as possible. • 2. paper. when you shop try to look out for the products that have least packaging. They not only pollute the environment but also helps in filling landfills. If you don’t have these boxes. and glass).g. Also. and then take these down to your local recycling center. Throw away all the garbage in your house that is of no use to you or you think you can’t utilize it in some other way. .

• Apart from this industrial recycling. waste. plastic water bottles. food leftovers.Recycling Material • Recycling has become the major process going on in the industries. keyboards. metal scrap. rubber etc. electronics –computers. all the leaves. batteries and other small electronic equipment. Anything that can serve as the source to make other things is called recyclable materials. cellular phones. plastic product. textile. wire. The materials that can be recycled are glass. aluminum. different kinds of paper. cables. twigs and other garden waste are decomposed by worms and saprobes and are converted into fertilizers . wood.

Best and the most economic materials to recycle .

Once the paper is collected from the recycle bins it is taken to the recycling plant where the waste paper is sorted and separated into types and grades. • The paper is the left to dry and is rolled up to be sent to shops. The second process is pulping.: inks. The clean paper pulp is then placed in the machine that uses centrifugal cleaning to spin more of the debris from the paper pulp. Paper is collected from the bin and deposited in the large recycling container along with the paper from the other recycle bins. Different materials are then added to the pulp to create different paper products such as cardboard. Once pulp is produced it is then passed through a series of screens to remove larger pieces of contaminants for e. newsprint or office paper.g. . This is the first process in the paper recycling process.How Paper is Recycled? • Paper is one the material that can be easily recycled. The bleaching process needs to be done if paper is intended to be white. plastic film and glue. staples. In this process large amount of water is added to the waste paper to produce pulp.

about 80% of tires are recycled which prevents old tires from taking up the space in landfill sites . • It is estimated several millions tires from private as well as commercial vehicles are discarded every year. many companies are chipping in with the help of grants from the local and state governments and are finding some practical uses of putting that waste into some valuable uses. One of the major issue in tire recycling is the durability of tires as they are very hard to break down and therefore are seen lying in open space in large heaps. They then end up in taking up the space in our landfills which affects the environment and also results in climate change. Recycling of tires involved taking in the old tire and converting them back into other type of products. The best way to reduce the filling of tires in the landfills is to become involved in tire recycling. With the market growing for recycling of tires. Earlier only a few percentages of tires were recycled bit with more companies coming in and help given by government bodies.Tire/Rubber Recycling • Tires become totally unusable once they are torn and damaged.

It is decomposed into char. In this process the rubber is frozen with the help of liquid nitrogen. Although it is realistic but still research is going on to make it happen on a bigger scale. .Steps Involved in Rubber Recycling • • • • Collection of Tires Devulcanization Mechanical Process Vulcanization • Other Processes • Freezing Method: It is a less common process. oil and gases during this process. • Pyrolysis: It is the process of melting rubber in the absence of oxygen so that combustion does not take place and toxic fumes are not produced. It is then processed in mills and grounded in the similar method already mentioned above.

If they somehow by bad disposal.Computer Recycling • Why Computer Recycling is so Important? • Mercury. cadmium and hexavalent chromium are harmful for humans. . reach drinking water they will cause many disease. There are millions of people in the word that cannot afford computers. Not only they increase pollution but have drastic effects for economy. Many landfills have computers as the major scrap.

plastic and glass can bring down the prices in the future because the raw material is not to be provided from outside by spending money. so this is achieved by computer recycling as comparatively less waste in produced and the e-waste in landfills is decreased. • • • • • . The remaking of computers— parts from the dismantled or broken down metals. 5. The hardware in dismantled into its components like glass. Traded to poor cities to assist them as they can’t afford to buy new ones. All of these components can be used in making other products.The procedure of computer recycling • Computer recycling does not have a proper industrial procedure. plastics and other metals. 3. As recycling focuses mainly on the decrease in wastes and a green land. 6.. 2. They can act as back up equipment in case if new computers are damaged. They can generally be: 1. 4. They can be provided to community education centers or local schools.

recycling is the best option as it assists business.Benefits of Computer Recycling • When the e-waste is not dispose of by the right method then it becomes a danger for life on earth. trade and decrease poverty. The after effects are increase in global warming. It increases employment in the industries with the job openings. increase in land. water and air pollution. It creates a green and eco environment and the chances for ozone depletion are decreased . increase in diseases and a loop hole in economy. So for this boom and gloom economy.

in them. So a million dollar question is: what to do with the old mobile phones? • Throw them? No. cadmium. There is a great competition going on between all the mobile companies and they try their best to give new features to their mobile phone so that they get attracted and buy them. . So when the mobile phones are disposed of then there is a possibility of leakage in their batteries. chromium. lead. PVC. it is very difficult to stick to the old ones. antimony. bromine etc.Need of Mobile Phones Recycling • In this era. selenium. Aquatic life may also be disturbed. obviously not! Mobile phones have barium. mercury. where the development and advancement is going at a great pace and every now and then new gadgets appear in the market. This will pollute the land and can also enter rivers and becoming a great danger for human life. So it is very necessary to get them recycled.

During the recycling process the functioning parts are removed and are used in low cost gadgets. So its recycling is very necessary. which can be decreased by recycling.• Recycling of Mobile Phones • It is a non-biodegradable waste and comprises a lot of the landfills. So it is better that the mobile phone are traded and recycled among people instead of all the industrial recycling. • Industrial Process • The making of new mobile phones requires raw material. . Glass cannot be decomposed naturally. but it gives a dirty look to the land. But the transportation of raw material from source to destination produces pollution by emission of poisonous gasses. It is not harmful for human health. The covers and protective casing of mobile phones can be made from the old ones. although it darkens in color but still remains glass in composition. The productions in industries also increase pollution as wastes are secreted from the industries which can be in solid form or in gaseous forms.

• The mobile phones can be given to the poor and destitute women and it can be very helpful and life saving for them. so that they can sell them to their people at low cost. • They can be exchanged with the shopkeepers in place of new mobile phones. so that they can provide the deserving people with mobile phones as they cannot afford them. • They can be sold to poor countries. Soldiers are given prepaid cards and recycled mobile phones. . • They can be given to charity. • They can be given to organizations or campaigns which send mobile phones to troops overseas so that they can call back home.Recycling Through Trade • Mobile phones can be refurbished and resold at an affordable price • They can be traded with the shop keepers. In this way it would cost less and would be beneficial.

disposable bottles and many other household items. . brown. green color or may be clear. It is not harmful for human health. Glass can be of blue. It is an amorphous solid which can have different compositions of semiconductors but most importantly are made of molten silica along with limestone and soda ash.Glass recycling • Glass is a very important inorganic material which is a one of the largest productions of industries. Glass cannot be decomposed naturally. although it darkens in color but still remains glass in composition. So its recycling is very necessary. windows. Glass is used in making crockery. mirrors. It can be made into a variety of different products used for man’s daily living. but it gives a dirty look to the land. doors. • The necessity for glass recycling • It is a non-biodegradable waste and comprises a lot of the landfills.

The process of glass recycling • • • • • • The collection Separation into colors Formation of cullet Heating and melting Shaping the glass Use of conveyors .

the consumption of water has been enhanced greatly. Some think that the natural resources need not to be protected but increased pollution in rivers. Other than that.The Ecological Importance of Water Recycling • Around the globe. people are making hard work to protect natural resources before their depletion reaches an increased state. streams and lakes has become a great danger for life. . it is very essential to protect water resources and to maintain the balance in the ecosystem. Therefore. People today are ‘going green’ to protect their land and to prove themselves as good citizens. due to increased population.

then depending on the extent of purification of water. • Recreation: Recycled water can be used in outdoor fountain displays. grain crops and fruit trees. The concrete mixing is a fundamental process in building. vineyards. to water golf courses and for artificial snow. . it can be used to irrigate many vegetables. • For industrial use: Processed waste water can be used in industries in water sprinkling systems and in cooling towers. • Construction: Recycled water can be used on a construction site for many purposes like concrete mixing and dust control. Many industries use a great amount of water but the purification is not much important in cleansing process. The fountains give a very good luck to a park.Benefits of Water Recycling • Landscape irrigation: People are recycling water irrigation systems which are completely separated from the domestic water supply. • For Farming: Where farming depends on the irrigation of water.

Plastic does not decompose and does not give a good kind of impression of the green land . So the amount of plastic bottles in landfills is increasing day by day. For beverages and other juices. plastic bottles are used more preferably.Plastic Bottles Recycling • Unfortunately the consumption of bottled water has been increased very much in the past few years. The bottles are made up of plastic. It is very unfortunate that they are occupying the space in landfills rather than recycling them and using them for other purposes.

Process of Plastic Bottles Recycling • • • • • • Collection and Sorting The Plastic Number Washing Discard Lids and Caps Don’t leave anything behind Squash and Squeeze .

Reduction is Greenhouse Gas Emission: It takes less processing in recycling things. 2. Oil Reservation: Recycling water bottles can save four barrels a day. As we know that the prices of oil are increasing day by day. Advantages of ‘reuse’: Many people think that the plastic bottles are transformed exactly into similar bottles but the truth is that they are recycled into someone’s jacket or someone’s deck. Save our Landfills: The recycling can help decrease landfills. One pound of PET can save as much as twelve thousand BTUÂ’s energy. As we know that space in the landfills is occupied by the bottles to a great extent and the land pollution is decreased. 5. 3. the bottles should be disposed off in the right manner to the recycling bins and proper organizations for recycling should be made • • • • . So. so it is very mindful to decrease its consumption in houses and industries. Conserving Energy: In case of bottles recycling. 4. It saves energy and the emission of gasses decreases to a great extent. the bottles are made up of a type of plastic called Polyethylene Terephthalate.Advantages of Plastic Bottles Recycling • • 1.

They have many uses in cars. The beauty of metal recycling is that that it can be recycled again and again without changing its properties. tin. trucks. ovens. . ships. brass. copper and (ferrous) steel and iron. railway tracks. aero planes. crockery and it can also be used for packaging. The most important metals which are used are (nonferrous) aluminum.Metal Recycling • The metals are very useful and versatile. cutlery. Sorting of metals during recycling becomes easier than that of plastic recycling as the magnetic properties can be checked.

• 3. All the appliances are squeezed and squashed in the machines so that they don’t occupy that much space in conveyor belts. shredding of metals takes place. The second important step is sorting the kind of metals which are good for recycling. • 2. Each metal has a specially designed furnace depending on its properties. Electrolysis is also used for metal purification. Processing: The next step is to compact the metal. The quality of metals matters a lot when it comes to recycling. • Then after melting the metals are purified by using different methods. Melting and Purification: The next step is to melt all this scrap metal in a large furnace. Recycling saves almost 75% of energy . Shredding: After crushing and breaking the metals. They are broken down into small sheets or pieces so that they can be processed further with ease. These metal blocks are then transported to different mills for their remaking into other products. Collection and sorting: The first step in metal recycling is the collection of all the materials which are made up of metals.The Process of Metal Recycling • 1. • 4.

Reducing pollution and landfill reduction. Once it is filled with the material the same is then picked by the local municipal body or local recycling firms to process those and make new products from them. • Few countries in the world have proper recycling colors and logos to help people identify the most appropriate bin. It has helped enormously in last few decades to process waste products which could otherwise would have ended up in filling up the garbage.What are Recycle Bins? • Recycle Bins are large containers that you must have seen outside your home. Recycling in other way would help in Energy Conservation. • Recycle bins is a great way to start recycling. This helps people to put proper things in proper places so that recycling firms can easily separate different items from the large quantities of waste products. . in parks or streets and are used to store recyclable material.

When you recycle.Recycling Benefits to the Economy • Recycling saves money: It is cheaper to make products using recycled materials.000 tons of waste creates 36 jobs. Through recycling. processing and selling recovered materials as well as companies that manufacture and distribute products made with recycled materials. using fresh aluminum costs twice as much as using recycled aluminum. For example. landfill costs). products that are made from recycled materials can also be purchased at a cheaper price. communities can save on their waste disposal costs (eg. the amount of waste that needs to go to the landfill or incinerator is also reduced. Subsequently. more jobs are created than when you merely discharge your waste. 90% more) is needed to extract aluminum from its raw forms . • And in turn. .000 tons of waste in a landfill creates six jobs while recycling 10. which can be very expensive • Recycling creates jobs and generates revenue: Recycling creates new businesses such as for transporting. As more items are reduced. This is because a lot more energy (ie. Dumping 10. jobs are created.

city. and invested a little time and effort into sorting out waste at home. imagine how much recyclables would be available to the recycling industry! And it would mean that almost every single item used and thrown can be recycled! • The recycling industry is now limited. aluminum. • If every household. mainly to paper. it certainly has a lot of potential for flourishing and generating jobs and revenues worth millions. .Recycling as a promising industry • Indeed. glass. the recycling business sector is growing and developing into an extremely promising industry. • As a sunrise industry. community. office and community. and other metals. and nation thought along the same lines. state. plastic.

Reusing and Recycling waste • With the cost of goods and materials rising. It's also better for the environment • Business benefits of reducing. using resources efficiently and reducing your business' waste makes good financial sense.Benefits to businesses: Save money by Reducing. reusing and recycling waste • Comply with waste regulations • Save and make money • Environmental benefits .

Choosing a waste management option • • • • • • • • • • Waste management hierarchy Reduce Reuse Recycle and compost Recover energy Dispose When choosing a waste option for your business. . the environmental impacts of disposing of your waste. the cost or profit involved in dealing with your waste. you should consider: what waste facilities are available near your business premises the type of waste you have to dispose of.

Reducing waste • Look for easy wins . control stock and streamline processes across departments.buy only what you need. • Review your processes .. • Use advice about resource efficiency from a range of organisations. • Adopting a strategic and systematic approach is the best way to achieve significant reductions in the amount of waste that your business produces.. switching off lights and electrical equipment. Buy equipment in bulk to reduce packaging and consider the product's durability and lifespan .keep the amount of materials you use in products to a minimum. and using rechargeable batteries.replacing equipment less often will reduce the waste you create. • Packaging design and use .ensure that equipment and materials are used efficiently and packaging is kept to a minimum. refilling printer cartridges. . • Procure carefully .seemingly trivial changes can produce significant savings. such as printing and photocopying double-sided. • Product design .make sure you use as little packaging as possible to achieve an adequate level of protection for your products.

glasses and cutlery rather than disposable alternatives • reuse envelopes and other packaging • donate used equipment and furniture to charities • use grey water recycling systems for your toilets • Reuse by other organizations • You can offer waste materials. end-of-line products and obsolete equipment to other organizations which can use them without alteration.Reusing waste • You may be able to reuse materials and equipment in your own business or another organisation may be able to reuse your waste • Reusing waste in your business • refill toner and ink-jet cartridges • use waste paper as notepaper • use durable cups. mugs. . second-hand products.

• Fridges and air-conditioning equipment containing ozone-depleting substances • End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) . • What you must recycle • Batteries that contain harmful chemicals and metals . . • You must comply with waste legislation if you are recycling or transporting waste.you must comply with certain requirements if you produce packaged products.you must send ELVs for dismantling and depollution. • Electrical and electronic equipment . or place packaging or packaged goods on the market.these are classified as hazardous waste.Recycling waste • Recycling is the third-best waste-management option for your business. It is less beneficial to the environment than reuse because energy and resources are needed to reprocess the waste before the materials can be used again. and recycle any component parts • Packaging . after reducing and reusing waste.

garden waste. excluding oxygen. It is clean and relatively odour-free. you can send these for recycling into compost • Anaerobic digestion of waste • AD can be used to treat food and similar wet organic wastes. AD is more suitable for wet wastes and sludges that degrade easily. • You can treat biodegradable waste on an industrial scale by either composting or anaerobic digestion (AD).Treating and composting biodegradable waste • Your business may be able to treat waste biologically to produce a nutrient-rich material or biogas. If you produce biodegradable waste you can send it for recycling into compost. Composting is more suitable for fibrous materials. . It produces a nutrient-rich solid material called digestate and biogas containing methane and CO2. paper and cardboard. • Composting biodegradable waste • If your business produces biodegradable waste such as food. It takes place in a closed container.

These can then be burned separately to produce electricity.Recovering energy and producing fuel from waste • You may be able to use your waste to recover energy or produce biofuel. engine or gas turbine to produce electricity. which can be burned independently in a boiler. • Pyrolysis is carried out in the total absence of oxygen. the gases are condensed into a liquid fuel. It produces a synthetic gas. In some pyrolysis processes. • Recovering energy from waste • AD can produce energy on a small scale. . It uses bacteria to break down organic matter without oxygen in specially made digesters. • Gasification involves heating organic waste with a reduced amount of oxygen and/or steam. It also produces an energy-rich gas and solid residue. • Incineration involves burning organic material such as waste to produce electricity and heat. known as syngas.

oxidising. flammable or infectious wastes • tyres • liquid wastes • wastes with more than 6 per cent total organic content • automotive and industrial batteries • animal by-products. such as agricultural carcasses and uncooked meat products .Disposing of waste • Disposing of waste at landfill sites or incinerating it without energy recovery are the least sustainable waste management options and you should only use them as a last resort. including: • corrosive. explosive. • • Landfilling waste • Some types of waste are banned from landfill sites.

which could save you money. This allows you to transport larger volumes in one go. transport and process it. It is not usually suitable for in-house recycling. . Separate and store plastics according to their grade and type. use a baler or compactor to crush materials into blocks or bales.Separating and storing waste • Check if you have hazardous waste • Hazardous waste may be harmful to human health or the environment. The three most common types of recyclable plastic are: • polyethylene terephthalate (PET) • high density polyethylene (HDPE) • polyvinyl chloride (PVC) • Compacting waste • If you have a large amount of waste. • You must prevent waste from escaping and causing pollution • Separating and storing waste • Store waste in areas that can contain a leak or spill and are isolated from surface water drainage systems. as there are strict controls on how you can store.

• Here's a look at four Tata companies that have undertaken recycling and resource conservation projects and successfully integrated these into their work processes in order to reduce the ecological impact of their business. want not".Reduce. in some way. . the Tata Group recognized the relevance of environmentally friendly work process many years ago. reuse and recycle: The Tata Group • The Tata Group recognized the need to protect and conserve the world's natural resources long before it became a mantra of modern business. However. See how Tata companies are recycling and utilizing their waste in innovative ways • With the earth's resources being rapidly depleted and most of the world chanting go green. All 93 Tata companies have. an endeavor that is today one of the driving themes behind their productivity curve. it is not surprising that business conglomerates are finally waking up to the need to conserve and recycle. been following the proverb "waste not.

. mill scale. and considering the type of waste and present utilization practices the entire process comes to around Rs 1. soil conditioner. aggregate manufacture and road construction.16 per cent is utilized either through recycling and reuse in the company's own processes or they are sold as raw material to other industries.There are roughly three types of waste that are left behind namely. The company generates roughly 700kg of various wastes (excluding fly ash) in the process of producing one tone of crude steel.3 crore for every one per cent of waste utilization. fly and bottom ash from the power plants. Of this. BF slag is used in cement making. etc . 83. Efforts have also been made to use LD slag as a soil conditioner in paddy fields. tea gardens.A war on waste: Tata Steel • Tata Steel has laid great emphasis. over the years. • "We have estimated the cost benefit of our waste utilization. BF flue dust and BF Sludge. . The remaining waste is sent for safe land filling. in the manufacture of slag wool. on creating a green environment in and around its plants and on utilizing the waste generated in the process of manufacturing steel. blast furnace slag (BF). with LD slag.

The tea waste produces dyes in a unique shade of green that is used for various dying processes.Painting the town green: Tata Tea • One of Tata Tea's most successful CSR efforts has been in its project Aranya that trains and employs disabled youngsters to extract dyes from natural sources. the material is disposed of through shredding under strict supervision • The volume of packaging scrap disposed at a particular time is of a minuscule quantity and does not become a pollution concern. . Though the plastic re-cycling industry in India is in a nascent stage. Tata Tea ensures the safe disposal of all plastic that is used. • All the packing material scrap is returned to the vendors and items that are to be disposed are disposed in the dumps provided by the Bangalore Corporation. Wherever these facilities are not available.

• Tata Chemicals replaces the use of fresh water by seawater or treated seawater wherever possible to an extent of more than 90 per cent of the total water requirements of its operations. Today. This time soda ash effluent solids are being used along with fly ash. energy efficiency and limestone conservation. the company stands as the nation's biggest inorganic chemicals complex.5 acres have been converted into a green belt and a further expansion of 10 acres is in progress. The company has also reclaimed saline and alkaline waste dumps by using fly ash as sediment.The 4 R's: Tata Chemicals • The growth of Tata Chemicals has always been guided by four principles — replace. • The company's cement plant manages the waste from the soda ash plant. water and other natural resources like limestone. reuse and recycle — in the field of energy. which is recognized in its class of business for water efficiency. About 12. reduce. .

spares of old equipment are used before scrapping. and care is taken to separate all non-recyclable and recyclable materials in different bins. "We have effectively reduced our guestroom and other wastage from 1. Supplies are usually bought in bulk. All waste from the kitchen. such as vegetable peels or waste from food preparation. The hotels also try and avoid using plastic or polyethylene bags wherever possible. an effort is made to buy concentrated products to reduce packages. Scrap wood.9 kg / guest / day.6 kg / guest / day. Wherever possible. which. water is recycled and slurry from the wastewater plant is dried and used in the generation of manure. .Giving back to the earth: Indian Hotels • Indian Hotels has developed a programme on minimization of waste that is being implemented across all its hotels. does not include kitchen biodegradable wastage. and our target is to meet the international benchmark of 0. however. Old linen is reused as dusters and aprons. metal and glass are disposed off in the recycler.2 kg / guest / day to approximately 0. All organic waste is sent to the biogas plant or used for vermiculture or for composting. is sent to be used as animal feed and the excess food from the restaurants is donated to various organizations.

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