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KIMIA INTI
Nuclear Chemistry
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Nuclear Equations
• Nucleons: particles in the nucleus:
–p
+
: proton
–n
0
: neutron.
• Mass number: the sume of the
number of p
+
and n
0
.
• Atomic number: the number of p
+
.
• Nuclear equations, the total number
of nucleons is conserved:
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Sample Nuclear Equations
He Th U
4
2
234
90
238
92
+ ÷
4
2
He - o
particle
| + ÷
÷
0
1
14
7
14
6
N C
0
-1
| - |
particle
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Three Types Of Decay
Processes
• o-radiation
–the loss of
4
2
He from the nucleus,
• |-radiation
–the loss of an electron from the nucleus,
• ¸-radiation
–the loss of high-energy photon from the
nucleus.
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Radioactivity
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Types of Radioactive Decay
• Ensure
conservation of
nucleons
– Write all particles
with their atomic
and mass numbers.
• Nucleons can
undergo decay

e p n
1
0
1
1
0
1
÷
+ ÷
n e p
0
1
1
0
1
1
÷ +
÷
| -particle emission
Electron capture
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Types of Radioactive Decay
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Neutron-to-Proton Ratio
• The proton has high mass and high charge
– proton-proton repulsion is large.
• The cohesive forces in the nucleus are
called strong nuclear forces. Neutrons are
involved with the strong nuclear force.
• As more protons are added (the nucleus
gets heavier) the proton-proton repulsion
gets larger.
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Radioactive Series
• A nucleus usually undergoes more
than one transition on its path to
stability.
• The series of nuclear reactions that
accompany this path is the
radioactive series.
• Nuclei resulting from radioactive
decay are called daughter nuclei.
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An Example Radioactive
Decay Series
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Nuclear Transmutations
• Nuclear transmutations are the
collisions between nuclei.
14
N +
4
o ÷
17
O +
1
H.
• The above reaction is written in
short-hand notation:
14
N(o,p)
17
O.
• To overcome electrostatic forces,
charged particles need to be
accelerated before they react.
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Nuclear Transmutations
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Radioactive Half-Lives

90
Sr has a half-life of 28.8 yr.
90
38
Sr ÷
90
39
Y +
0
-1
e
• Each isotope has a characteristic half-life.
• Half-lives are not affected by temperature,
pressure or chemical composition.
• Natural radioisotopes tend to have longer
half-lives than synthetic radioisotopes.
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Rates of Radioactive Decay
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Rates of Radioactive Decay
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Carbon Dating
• Carbon-14 is used to
determine the ages of
organic compounds
– We assume the ratio of
12
C to
14
C has been
constant over time.
• For us to detect
14
C
the object must be
less than 50,000 years
old.
• The half-life of
14
C is
5,730 years.
| + ÷
÷
0
1
14
7
14
6
N C
17
kt
N
N
ln
0
t
÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

Rates of Radioactive Decay
• Radioactive decay is a first order process:
Rate = kN
N – the number of
radionuclides
k – the first order rate
constant
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Detection of Radioactivity
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6
14
CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
14
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
sunlight
chlorophyll
Radiotracers
• Radiotracers are used to follow an
element through a chemical
reaction.
• Photosynthesis has been studied
using
14
C:
–The carbon dioxide is said to be
14
C
labeled.
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• Einstein showed that mass and energy are
proportional:
E = mc
2
• The mass of a nucleus is less than the
mass of their nucleons. – the mass defect!
• Binding energy is the energy required to
separate a nucleus into its nucleons.
• Since E = mc
2
the binding energy is
related to the mass defect.

Energy Changes in Nuclear
Reactions
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Nuclear Binding Energies
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Nuclear Fission
• Splitting of heavy nuclei is
exothermic for large mass numbers.
• Consider a neutron bombarding a
235
U nucleus:
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A Nuclear Fission Process
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Chain Reactions
• The number of fissions and the
energy increase rapidly - eventually,
a chain reaction forms.
• The minimum mass of fissionable
material is required for a chain
reaction – critical mass.
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The Fission Process
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The Fission Process
• For subcritical masses, the neutrons
escape and no chain reaction occurs.
• At critical mass, the chain reaction
accelerates.
• Anything over critical mass is called
supercritical mass.
• Critical mass for
235
U is about 1 kg.
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Atomic Bombs
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Nuclear Reactors
• Use a subcritical mass of
235
U (enrich
238
U with
about 3%
235
U)
• Enriched
235
UO
2
pellets
are encased in Zr or
stainless steel rods.
• Control rods are
composed of Cd or B,
which absorb neutrons.
• Moderators are inserted
to slow down the
neutrons.
• Natural abundance
uranium used as a
fuel souce.
• Enriched
235
UO
2

pellets are encased in
Zr rods.
• Heavy water is used
as the moderator and
the coolant.


Heat produced in the reactor core is removed by a
cooling fluid to a large tank of water (producing
steam). Steam drives an electric generator.
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A Schematic Nuclear
Reactor
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Nuclear Fusion
• Light nuclei can fuse to form heavier nuclei.
• Most reactions in the Sun are fusion.
• Fusion products are not usually radioactive, so
fusion is a good energy source.
• Also, the hydrogen required for reaction can
easily be supplied by seawater.
• However, high energies are required to overcome
repulsion between nuclei before reaction can
occur.
• High energies are achieved by high
temperatures: the reactions are thermonuclear.

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• Fusion of tritium and deuterium requires about
40,000,000K:
2
1
H +
3
1
H ÷
4
2
He +
1
0
n
• These temperatures can be achieved in a nuclear
bomb or a tokamak.
• A tokamak is a magnetic bottle: strong magnetic
fields contained a high temperature plasma so
the plasma does not come into contact with the
walls. (No known material can survive the
temperatures for fusion.)
• To date, about 3,000,000 K has been achieved in
a tokamak.
Nuclear Fusion
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Biological Effects of
Radiation
• The penetrating power of radiation is
a function of mass.
–¸-radiation (zero mass) penetrates
deeply
–|-radiation penetrates much further
than o-radiation
• Radiation absorbed by tissue causes
excitation (nonionizing radiation) or
ionization (ionizing radiation).
• Ionizing radiation is much more
harmful than nonionizing radiation.

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Biological Effects of
Radiation
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Biological Effects of
Radiation
• Most ionizing radiation interacts with
water in tissues to form H
2
O
+
.
• The H
2
O
+
ions react with water to
produce H
3
O
+
and OH.
• OH has one unpaired electron. It is
called the hydroxy radical.
• Free radicals generally undergo chain
reactions.
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• The SI unit for radiation is the becquerel
(Bq).
• 1 Bq is one disintegration per second.
• The curie (Ci) is 3.7 × 10
10
disintegrations
per second. (Rate of decay of 1 g of Ra.)
• Absorbed radiation is measured in the
gray (1 Gy is the absorption of 1 J of
energy per kg of tissue) or the radiation
absorbed dose (1 rad is the absorption of
10
-2
J of radiation per kg of tissue).

Radiation Doses
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The Relative Biological
Effectiveness
• Not all forms of radiation have the same
effect,
• Account for the differences using RBE
(relative biological effectiveness
– ~ for |- and ¸-radiation and 10 for o radiation).
• rem (roentgen equivalent for man) =
rads.RBE
• SI unit for effective dosage is the Sievert
(1Sv = RBE.1Gy = 100 rem).
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Radiation Doses
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Radon
• The nucleus
222
86
Rn is a product of
238
92
U.
• Radon exposure accounts for more than
half the 360 mrem annual exposure to
ionizing radiation.
• Rn is a noble gas so is extremely stable.
• The half-life of is 3.82 days.
• It decays as follows:
222
86
Rn ÷
218
84
Po +
4
2
He
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Biological Effects of Radon
• The o-particles produced have a high RBE.
• Therefore, inhaled Rn is thought to cause lung
cancer.
• The picture is complicated by realizing that
218
Po
has a short half-life (3.11 min) also:
218
84
Po ÷
214
82
Pb +
4
2
He
• The
218
Po gets trapped in the lungs where it
continually produces o-particles.
• The EPA recommends
222
Rn levels in homes to be
kept below 4 pCi per liter of air.