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• Internal Quality Auditing • Terminologies

*Fitness for use •Conformance to specification •Delighting the customer •Towards zero defects •Free from defects •Degree of excellence •Right fist time all the time

Quality Inspection State (QI)
Inspection is:• Conformity evaluation by observation and judgment accompanied as appropriate by measurement, testing or gauging (3..8.2) • After-the-event screening process • Application point within the process • Thirty party inspection or operator sell inspection • Decision scrap, rework, medication, concession • No prevention content-does not provide any basis for process improvement

Outline • Definition of quality and other related terms • Historical development of quality management • Functions affecting quality • Achieving quality assurance .

Historical Development of QM The development of quality annulment can be defined in four stages: 1) Quality inspection stage (QI)-1920s 2) Quality control stage (QC) .1950s. 4) Total quality management (QM) stage .1970s. 3) Quality assurance stage (QA) .

Quality Assurance Stage (QA) Quality Assurance is:• Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled (3. QFD.11) • Issues of progression from QC to QA -Change n emphasis from production to process • Third level of quality development -Represents a shift from detection to prevention -Planed and systematic actions defined • Existence of motive quality system –ISO 9000 • Gender use of QM tools – SPC.1. FMEA • Quality performance and costs • Major customer approval .

• Represents an international consensus on good management practices for a systematic and generic application of principles and practices based on quality • ISO 9000 is a written standard that defines the system that organizations should use to ensure that their products and / or services meet or exceed customer expectations • A set of standardized requirements for quality management systems and is applicable to any organization regardless of it‟s size or whether public or private sector .The ISO 9000 Concept….

2) .11) -Characteristic – distinguishing feature.1) -Requirement –need or expectation that is stated or implied or obligatory. sensory. physical. i.e. i. temporal or functional etc (3.Quality Defined: ISO 9000:2000 • Degree to which a set of inherent characteristic fulfils requirements (3.1. custom or common practices for you (3.e.5.

stakeholders and society .Total Quality Management Stage • Represents the most advanced stage of quality development today (TQM was first used in 1985 to describe the Japanese style at quality improvement – Naval Air Command System – UK) • A Management philosophy • Company wide approached centred on application of QM to all aspects of business -Focused on the requirements of the customer satisfaction -Participation of all employees -Recognized the important of suppliers -Aimed at long term success for • Development of organization culture • Continue improvement • Benefit of all employees.

The ISO 9000 Concept … • ISO 9000 is seen as a vehicle towards TQM • The principal goal of the ISO 9000 Standards is to demonstrate quality assurance • “Quality culture” refers to the degree of awareness. commitment. collective attitude and behaviour of the organization with regard to quality .

8) • Management System (SM) • System to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives (3.2.What is Quality Management? • Quality Management (QM) • Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality (3.2) .2) • Quality Management System (QMS) • Management system to direct and control and organization with regard to quality (3.2.2.

Quality: Meeting Requirements
• Specifications are imprecise means of conveying subjective aspects i.e. -Not everything is measurable, e.g. courtesy or friendliness • Thus, conformance to requirements is not necessarily all there is to achieving quality

Product quality may be classified into two categories; Quality of design • Quality of conformance


Quality: Customer Satisfaction • Customer Satisfaction or is it meeting requirements? • Only true measure of acceptable quality ... Acceptable quality . -Takes account of both subjective and objective interpretations of needs and expectations -Correct interpretation of needs and expectation..

TERMINOLOGIES • QUALITY POLICY Overall intentions and direction of an organization related to quality as formally expressed by top management QUALITY OBJECTIVES Something sought. or aimed for. related to quality .

ACHIEVING QUALITY ASSURANCE The organization‟s concern is to provide quality products / services To succeed the company must offer products that fulfill the following objectives. use or purpose • Satisfy customer‟s expectations • Comply with applicable standards and specifications • Comply with statutory requirements • Are made available to competitive prices • Are provided at a cost that will yield profits . • Meet well define need.

TO MEET THIS OBJECTIVES The company must organize itself in a way that:The technical ) Administrative ) Control Human factors ) Hence the need for a quality system .

• Internal Quality auditing to ISO 19011: 2000 .

Definitions (1) Audit A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with the planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve the objectives .

Auditing Standard • IS0 19011 : 2002 Guidelines on Quality and / or Environmental Systems Auditing .

Outline • • • • Definition of a quality audit Types of audit Purpose and objectives of internal audits Creating an environment for successful audits • Benefits of an effective audit process .

. independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria are fulfilled.Definitions (2) • Quality Audit Systematic.

Types of audit 3 types • Process audits • Product audits • System audits .

Process audits • Evaluation of the content and effectiveness of specific processes and work activities • To confirm the process parameters and improve capability of the process • To ensure the realization of process quality characteristics • To ensure improvement of process control during service provision .

Product audits -To identify opportunities for improvement to establish the quality level of units before final inspection and testing -To establish the capability of the inspection function -To determine the usefulness of inspection/tests .

• 2nd part audits (supplier audits) – the customer audits the supplier‟s quality system • 3rd party audits – these are external certification audits by an independent institution in order to certify the quality system .Audits are distinguished by the party requesting: • 1st party audit (internal audits) – the auditee audits its own quality system according to a quality standard.

Products audits
Investigation of products conformance to specified characteristics -To obtain additional neutral assessment of product‟s level of quality -To obtain additional assurance that specified quality requirements are met

System audits
• Evaluation all the elements of the quaity system in order to:• Verify usefulness, suitability and effectiveness • Verify adequate documentation • Verify compliance with requirements • Determine weak points

Purpose of audits
• Registration / certification audit • Verify that the organization's QMS meet the requirements of ISO 9001 : 2000 • Internal audit • Identify opportunities for improvement • Maintain ISO 9001 certification

Objectives of the Internal audit • To verify conformance to applicable standards • To verify conformance to documented procedures • To verify effectiveness of the processes in the system • To identify opportunities to improve the system .

g. y quantifying the losses .Creating and environment for successful audits (1) • Gaining management support -Documenting audit findings in away that ensures management understands the effect on system -Linking non-conformities to losses especially in income -Making clear the consequence of deviating form system requirements e.

Benefits of an effective audit process • Reduced operating costs through better efficiency • Improved customer satisfaction • Improved morale • Reduced barriers between departments • Survival through continual improvement .

Creating an environment for successful audits (2) • Gaining employees support -Provide basic training so people understand the purpose of the audit -Ensuring people understand their roles -Making clear that the auditees is the customer of the audit not the „victim‟ -Ensuring that punitive action is not taken based on audit findings .

• Audit Planning and Scheduling .

Audit Planning and Scheduling The MR plans the audit • The schedule is drawn by the MR well in advance in consultation with the Management Review Board • The schedule must be comprehensive to ensure that each activity is examined at least once in a year MR has overall responsibility .

Status of activity .Importance of activity • Provide for unscheduled audits .Drawing an Audit Schedule (2) • Frequency of audits is determined by:.Due to new features added to the systme .Due to failures in the system .

Outline • Responsibilities for planning and scheduling • Drawing of a schedule • Selecting auditors • Audit cycle .

Drawing an Audit Schedule (1) Can be:• Departmental • Section • Project • Corporate Period covered by schedule usually 12 months .

Selecting Auditors Identify independent auditors • Train them to form a pool of auditors • Assign them the audit task .

Rev….ABC COMPANY LTD • INTERNAL QUALITY SCHEME Dsig…. Date …. 1 2 3 4 Departmental section Auditors JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Personnel Engineering Modification 5 6 7 8 Sales ..

The Audit Cycle (2) • Identification of deficiencies or non conformance • Proposal and agreement on corrective action • Corrective action taken • Follow up audit to evaluate effectiveness of corrective action • Report to management .

6.Agenda for Management Review Meeting (5.2) • • • • • Review of audits Customer feedback Process performance & product conformity Status of conformity & preventive action Follow up action on previous management reviews • Changes that affect the quality management system and • Recommendations for improvement .

The Audit Cycle (1) • Identification of the need for the audit (From the management) • Planning and preparation • Internal audits performed as per the schedule .

Management Review • Management review meeting (at least annually) • Management issues the internal audit schedule • After audits Management analyses results of the audit .

Preparation for an Individual Audit .

Possible ways: • Audit of entire organization at one time • Audit y department. Establish audit scope 3. area or product • Audit by process in the quality system .2.

Establish audit basis • Usually a combination of the quality system standard and the system documentation (manual.4. procedures. work instructions. etc) . plans. standard specification.

1. Establish audit type and purpose Especially if the audits are: • Unscheduled • Occasioned by a problem in the system .

Establish audit personnel • Usually appointed by MR • Must be independent of area being audited • Must have sound understanding of area to be audited • Usually from pool of trained auditors • Team leaders should be identified .3.

Review basis documentation • A good understanding of the basis documentation very important • For the standard may choose to underline all sentences with the work shall • For system documentation useful to start with the manual.5. etc . followed by procedures.

6. Prepare process model • Identify inputs and outputs of the process being audited • Identity desired results of the process .

8. Notify the auditee • • • • • Notify auditee in advance of: Time Date The scope The basis Timetable of the audit issue notification in writing .

Notification Timetable allows auditee to:• Organize who will attend • Make himself available or assign a guide • Organize resources (guide. meeting room etc) Timetable should be sent to auditee well in advance .

7. . Review previous audit results • Should be done both for internal and external audits • Effectiveness of corrective action from previous audits can be evaluated • Adds value by not focusing on issues that have been fully resolved • Ensures that unresolved problems are revisited until resolved.

Notification .

ISO 9001 : 2000 .Procedures .Manuals .9. Prepare audit checklist • Acts as a reminder / guide during audits • Be based on audit basis document .Work instruction • Use key words .

Checklist preparation • Ensure the following comes out • Quality system is understood and implemented • Procedures are conformed to • Procedures are effective .

Remember • Audit preparation and planning • Carrying out the audit • Reporting audit and follow up 50% 30% 20% .

what. Why • On your checklist indicate against each question the section of the standard manual or procedure .Checklist preparation Audit questions • Use open ended questions which prevent the auditee from answering YES or NO • Do not use leading questions • Open questions start with How. Who. Which. When.

Performing the Audit .

Performing the audit Before start of audit • Auditees management informs personnel in the involved departments about expected audit • Lead auditors and rest of the team must be acceptable to auditee management .

Personal attributes • • • • • • • • • • God outward impression Ethical Open minded Alert. insistent. observant Perceptive Well spoken and reasoning. through . curious . diplomatic Emotionally stable Calm Self confident Persistent.

Outline • • • • • • • • Auditor qualifications Phases of an audit The opening meeting Rules for auditors Objectives evidence Ending difficult situations Raising non-conformities Closing meetings .

Auditor qualifications The qualification on an auditor is founded on a solid • Education • Training • Experience .

Four phases of an Audit • • • • Opening meeting Executive of audit Auditor‟s meeting Closing meeting .

Introductions .Confirm Scope and Basic of audit .Confirm timetable (plan) .Confirm purpose .Opening Meeting • Always arrive on time • Keep it brief • Auditee and others to be present • Cover the following .

work instruction and procedures Note equipments calibration and maintenance status Don‟t ask more than one question at time Don mope listening . Carry out audit as per the plan He checklist but don‟t be a salve of it You may deviate but don‟t get disorganized Met areas of audit with the guide Observe operations at work Interview personnel Ask open ended questions Book all notices..Performing the audit • • • • • • • • • • • • You my need to start with …. walls.

formulate differently • Involve all participants • Let the right g .Some rules for auditors • • • • • • Keep calm and relaxed Book at the other person eye contact Keep one question at a time Let the other person finish talking Keep the right distance from the person If your question cause uneasiness or uncertainly.

• • • • • • • • • • Confirm guide and his role Not an arbitrator May sign for observations Not to interfere Confirm resources availability (tools. office) Confidentality if need be Confirm time of closing NB: Keep meeting professional Tem leader chairs the meeting Don‟t allow auditee to take over the control of the meeting .Opening Meeting contd.

Audit lozenge • Drawing….. person . • Ask one question a time • Wait for answers from the auditee • Book and observe the answer.

gestures and posture Listening and not ignoring auditee .Basic communication skills • • • • Tone of voice Facial expressions Body language.

Where.What. When.g. department and try to answering . Procedures and Manual SHOW ME – Collaborate with evidence e.Are signatures by authorized personnel? . traceable? RECORD – Objective evidence to confirm that activities conform ( or not) with requirements of QMS -Reference numbers of documents -Persons. How etc .Performing the audit CHECK – Compare what you see and hear with what is written in the Standards. . Who.Are documents dated.

Objective Evidence Collect all the details • Exact observation • What was seen / heard • Where • When • Who • Why / Creteria .

then move quickly to business at hand • The easily distracted auditee -Auditee away from source of distraction . anxious auditee .Clarify purpose of audit light conversation on topic of interest before interview • Angry resentful auditee -Treat with respect and find out causes • Excessively proud auditee .Handling difficult situations • The nervous.Admire work.

Performing the Audit OBJECTIVE / EVIDENCE Data supporting the existence or verify of something .

Objective Evidence • • • • ESTABLISH RECORD EXTRACT CLARIFY the facts the evidence for compliance for significant .

Auditors‟ Meeting • • • • Compilation of findings / observation Recording of non – conformities Preparation o summary report Formulation of opinions to be presented at Closing meeting .

Raising non-conformities • Any considered deviation to be discussed with auditee • Say what clause it is against • Ensure it is understood • Record the objectives evidence • Commit observation to paper • Have the auditee / guide sign for it .

insert table .Evaluating Corrective Action ……..

Response to a Non Conformity? There are two routes with which the response of an organization to a non conformity Route 1: • Correction action to eliminate a detected non-conformity (ISO 9000:2000 cause ( • Analysis of cause • Corrective action: action to eliminate the cause of a detected non conformity or other undesirable situation (ISO 9000:2000 cause 3.5) .

if a low brake paid warning light were to illuminate in a vehicle and you immediately implemented the correction of replacing the brake pads before examining II the sensor was faulty. it is inadvisable to implement a correction until the cause is known • For a hardware. . you might fall to resolve the problem and would have wasted time and resources. as to which is the correct one to be followed Example: • For software. • Depends on the product type or • The situation of the nonconformity.Response at a Non – Conformity? My 2 different sequences or routes.

Outline • • • • Response to non conformity Reviewing responses Objective of the QMS Informed judgment .

6. Analysis of cause . Corrective action: action to eliminate the cause of a detected non conformity or other undesirable situation (ISO 9000:2000 cause (3. Correction: action to eliminate a detected nonconformity (ISO 9000:2000 cause( 3.Response to a Non – Conformity? There are two routes with which the response of an organization to a non-conformity: Route 2 .6.5) .5) .

systematic problems soling techniques (e. five why's etc . • Correction may involve replacing nonconforming production or replacing an obsolete procedure with the current issue Correction action: • Cannot be taken without list making a determination of the cause of nonconformity\ • May methods and tools available from simple brainstorming to more complex. root cause analysis. fish bone diagrams.g.Response to a Non Conformity? • Both Correction and Corrective action should be expected when there is a deducted nonconformity Correction for example.

6.) . • Corrective action should not be confused with preventive action • Preventive action –to eliminate the cause of a potential nonconformity or other undesirable situation (ISO 9000:2000 cause 3.Reviewing responses! • Documentation and objective evidence for corrections causes and corrective action: • Effective corrective action should eliminate the cause.4.

The term “improvement” is stated 27 times in the standard .Quality improvement (3.Further requirements specify the need for continual improvements to the quality management system – not just sporadic quality campaigns . Requirements • Improvement .8 important) .13) = recruiting quality to increase the quality to …….2.The term “continual improvement” is stated 10 times in the standard (5.12)= part of quality management focused on increasing the equality to (NOTE the requirements can be related to any aspect such as effectiveness) • Continual improvement (3.2.QMS Objective? • Improvement .

Informed Judgment Conclusion drawn (positive and negative) findings • Number of major nonconformities raised • Number of nonconformities raised during audit of documentation • Number of nonconformities raised during audit of implementation • Number of nonconformities related to the effectiveness of the QMS • Number of non conformities raised against the clause of the standard • Number of nonconformist raised to each • Number of nonconformities raised in each department or area of responsibility .

. or for certification or for contractual purposes.The term effectiveness is stated 16 times in the standard (8.ISO 9001 specifies requirements for a quality management system that can be used for internal application by organization.5 important .3 important) .It locuses on the effectiveness of the quality management system in meeting customer requirements .Extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved (ISO 9000:2000 defn) .…QMS Objectives? • Effectiveness: .The term effectiveness of is state 10 times in the standard (5. Effectiveness .

Internal audit results .Major / minor conformities .Any failure.Corrective and preventive actions .Informed judgment QMS Effectiveness • Conclusion drawn (positive and Negative) findings .Strength and weakness of sections / department . internal and external .Strength and weaknesses of the quality system • QMS effectiveness input: .Working to their processes and procedure .Trends .

• Reporting and Analysis of audits .

Reporting of Audits • Auditors not responsible for carrying out corrective action but should facilitate timely action by:• Issuing audit report immediately (within 24 hrs) • Ensuring that CARs are clear – with reference to finding and specific objective evidence .

Examples of outstanding performance / improvement since last audit • Summary • Attachment (including copies of CARs) The audit report including any nonconformity report/corrective action notices are issued to the auditee or MR .Reporting of Audits Report should cover the following headings • Date of audit • Scope and purpose of audit • Basis of the audit • Audit tem • Findings .Opportunities for improvement .Summary of the non conformities .Observations noted .

Outline • • • • Responsibilities for reporting Format for reports Analysis of audits Records and administration follow-up of audits .

Reporting of Audits • A standard Proforma for the reporting of audit is usually used • Ensure that positive as well as negative findings are summarized .

Reporting of Audits • ISO 19011:2002 includes recommendations for report content .

Analysis of Audits • MR will analyze audit reports to identify areas of common deficiency within QMS • This will initiate changes to the audit schedule • A full analysis of audit reports is presented to management review meeting .

Following up Can be done in two ways • By the auditors at an agreed time • By the MR after collection of all reports .

Records and administration of audits • The MR should enter the audits in the audit log • Original checklist. audit reports and related documents are retained QMS departmental files as records .

• Record keeping – examples • Corrective action log Car no Date audited Assigned to Stimulated completion title Action completion date Planned verification date Actual verification date .