• Rajendra Prasad • Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan • Zakir Hussain • Varahagiri Venkatagiri • Mohammed Hidayatullah • Varahagiri Venkatagiri • Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed

• B. D. Jatti

• Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy • Giani Zail Singh • R. Venkataraman • Shankar Dayal Sharma • R. K. Narayan • A. P. J. Abdul Kalam • Pratibha Patil

• On the first Republic Day (26 Jan, 1950), the entire cabinet (govt) prayed at a temple for the prosperity of the independent country, and received Prasad from the priest. • It was distributed to all (sarvé) as the prasad from Radhakrishna. • At the moment of distribution, Zakir Hussain played the tabla in praise of the gods. • The sound reached the top of the mountains (giri). • It awakened the still heart (hridaya) (Hidayatullah) of the mountain. • The mountain (giri) sprang to life. • It thought that Mohammed Ali was making all the noise. • So, it came down to meet him, but only found a loafer smoking a bidi (B. D.). • The mountain didn’t like smokers, so it administered red Sanjeevini (Sanjeeva Reddy) herbs to him. • But, the contents of the bottle were adulterated, and the moutain was thrown into jail (Zail). • His cellmate was Ram (Raman), who was very kind to him (dayalu) (Dayal). • Feeling elated that he had such a famous cellmate, the mountain wrote a book about Ram and entitled it, ‘Narayan’. • To give his book a divine touch, the mountain asked Ganesha to write it. But, Ganesha had become modernised and shoved a pen (Kalam) into his face. • At the book unveiling ceremony, the Chief Guest was Pratibha Patil.

Learning is a powerful incentive for many employees to stick to certain organizations. Learning has a significant impact on individual behavior as it influences abilities, role perceptions and motivation. Along with its role in individual behavior, learning is essential for knowledge management. Knowledge management enhances an organization’s capacity to acquire, share and utilize knowledge in ways that improve its survival and success

Learning is defined as “a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of prior experience.” It is the modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience. This is supplemented with five important components of learning:
1. 2. 3. 4. Learning involves change Not all changes reflect learning Learning is reflected in behavior The change in behavior should occur as a result of experience, practice or training 5. The practice or experience must be reinforced in order for learning to occur

• Learning occurs throughout one’s life

Classical Conditioning

Social Learning


Operant Conditioning

Cognitive Learning

This type of learning is quite common Plays an important role in strong fears, taste aversions, racial or ethnic prejudice

Also called instrumental conditioning Refers to the process that our behavior produces certain consequences Emphasizes voluntary behaviors

People are conscious, active participants in how they learn The person learns the meaning of various objects and event, and learns responses depending on the meaning assigned to stimuli Expectations, attributions and locus of control are all cognitive concepts

Also called observational learning Emphasizes the ability of an individual to learn by observing others Enhances the self-efficiency of the learner Managers can shape employee behavior by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves the individual closer to the desired response.

Motivation Reinforcement Whole vs. Part Learning Learning Curves Meaningfulness of Material Learning Styles

Without motivation learning does not take place or, at least, is not discernible.

Motivation may be seen at different levels of complexity of a situation.

Reinforcement is the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior. There are two types of reinforcement:
– Positive reinforcement strengthens and enhances behavior by the presentation of positive reinforces. • Primary • Secondary 1. Negative reinforcement: An unpleasant event that precedes a behaviour is removed when the desired behaviour occurs.

Principle of Contingent Reinforcement Principle of Immediate Reinforcement Principle of Reinforcement Size Principle of Reinforcement Deprivation

• •

Schedules of reinforcement determine when reinforces are applied. Four varieties of partial reinforcement schedules have great relevance to organizations. They are:
1. Fixed interval schedule 3. Variable interval schedule 5. Fixed ratio schedule 7. Variable ratio schedule

Punishment is the attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior. It is used in two ways:
1. One way to punish a person is to apply a negative consequence called punishers 2. The other way to punish a person is to withhold a positive consequence

An alternate to punishing undesirable behavior is extinction.

Is learning a whole job superior to breaking the job into parts? Whole Learning Part Learning In parts learning, ― learn each individual part ― be able to combine the separate parts



Amount learned

Initial Spurt

End Spurt

Disorganisation of learning Organisation of learning

A diagrammatic presentation of the amount learned in relation to time. Y-axis = amount learnt; X-axis = passage of time. Features: ― Initial spurt ― Learning plateau ― Organization of learning
― Disorganization of learning ― End spurt

A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. Meaning ∝ Learning Practical possibilities: Organizing meaningfulness units, creating association with familiar terms, and providing a conceptual basis of logical reasoning

• •

Learning style refers to the ability of an individual to learn. There are four styles people use when learning: Feeling








Stimuli (Work Situation) Response (Choice of Behaviour) Consequences (Reinforcement) Stimulus (New Work Situation)

Generalization (Repeat initial behaviour)


Is the new stimulus enough to expect the same behaviourreinforcement relationship ?


Discrimination (Choose new behaviour)

Learning and training: – Learning is the major objective of training. If conducted keeping learning principles in mind, training becomes effective. Learning through feedback – Feedback is any information that people receive about the consequences of their behavior. – It lets people know what behaviors are appropriate or necessary in a particular situation. – Improves employee ability by frequently providing information to correct performance problems. – Is a source of motivation.

Employee indiscipline
• Employee indiscipline exhibited in such acts as drunkenness on the job, late arrivals to work, insubordination, stealing company property and the like is common. • The manager will respond with disciplinary actions such as, verbal warnings, oral reprimands, or temporary suspensions.

• Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. • Säljö (1979) carried out a simple, but very useful piece of research. The responses fell into five main categories: – Learning as a quantitative increase in knowledge. – Learning as memorising. – Learning as acquiring facts, skills, and methods that can be retained and used as necessary. – Learning as making sense or abstracting meaning. – Learning as interpreting and understanding reality in a different way.

David beckham Remanika Hallucination Velvet Net ball Margarita Military Leicester Kamikaze Hypnosis Wombat Mrs Vaishali Mockingbird Choreography Emirates Apartheid Mansarovar Lake Elmer Fudd

Doughnut Sawariya

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