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Object-Oriented Software Engineering

Using UML, Patterns, and Java

Chapter 10, Mapping Models to Code

Overview

Object design is situated between system design and implementation. Object design is not very well understood and if not well done, leads to a bad system implementation. In this lecture, we describe a selection of transformations to illustrate a disciplined approach to implementation to avoid system degradation.
1. Operations on the object model: Optimizations to address performance requirements 2. Implementation of class model components: Realization of associations Realization of operation contracts 3. Realizing entity objects based on selected storage strategy Mapping the class model to a storage schema
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Characteristics of Object Design Activities


Developers perform transformations to the object model to improve its modularity and performance. Developers transform the associations of the object model into collections of object references, because programming languages do not support the concept of association. If the programming language does not support contracts, the developer needs to write code for detecting and handling contract violations. Developers often revise the interface specification to accommodate new requirements from the client. All these activities are intellectually not challenging
However, they have a repetitive and mechanical flavor that makes them error prone.
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State of the Art of Model-based Software Engineering

The Vision
During object design we would like to implement a system that realizes the use cases specified during requirements elicitation and system design.

The Reality
Different developers usually handle contract violations differently. Undocumented parameters are often added to the API to address a requirement change. Additional attributes are usually added to the object model, but are not handled by the persistent data management system, possibly because of a miscommunication. Many improvised code changes and workarounds that eventually yield to the degradation of the system.

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Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

Model transformations

Forward engineering

Refactoring
Model transformation Reverse engineering Model space Source code space

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Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

Model Transformation Example

Object design model before transformation


LeagueOwner Advertiser Player +email:Address

+email:Address

+email:Address

Object design model after transformation:

User +email:Address

LeagueOwner
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Advertiser
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Player
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Refactoring Example: Pull Up Field


public class User { private String email; } public class Player { private String email; //... } public class LeagueOwner { private String eMail; //... } public class Advertiser { private String email_address; //... }
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public class Player extends User { //...


}

public class LeagueOwner extends User { //... } public class Advertiser extends User { //... }
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Refactoring Example: Pull Up Constructor Body


public class User { private String email; } public class Player extends User { public Player(String email) { this.email = email; } } public class LeagueOwner extends User{ public LeagueOwner(String email) { this.email = email; } } public class User { public User(String email) { this.email = email; } } public class Player extends User { public Player(String email) { super(email); } } public class LeagueOwner extends User { public LeagueOwner(String email) { super(email); } } public class Advertiser extends User { public Advertiser(String email) { super(email); } }
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public class Advertiser extendsUser{ public Advertiser(String email) { this.email = email; } }


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Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

Forward Engineering Example


Object design model before transformation
User +email:String +notify(msg:String) LeagueOwner +maxNumLeagues:int

Source code after transformation


public class User { private String email; public String getEmail() { return email; } public void setEmail(String value){ email = value; } public void notify(String msg) { // .... } /* Other methods omitted */ }

public class LeagueOwner extends User { private int maxNumLeagues; public int getMaxNumLeagues() { return maxNumLeagues; } public void setMaxNumLeagues (int value) { maxNumLeagues = value; } /* Other methods omitted */ }
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Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

Other Mapping Activities


Optimizing the Object Design Model Mapping Associations Mapping Contracts to Exceptions Mapping Object Models to Tables

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Collapsing an object without interesting behavior


Object design model before transformation

Person

SocialSecurity number:String

Object design model after transformation

Person

SSN:String

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Delaying expensive computations


Object design model before transformation
Image filename:String data:byte[] paint()

Object design model after transformation

?
Image

filename:String paint()

image ImageProxy filename:String paint()


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0..1

RealImage data:byte[] paint()


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Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

Other Mapping Activities


Optimizing the Object Design Model Mapping Associations Mapping Contracts to Exceptions Mapping Object Models to Tables

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Realization of a unidirectional, one-to-one association


Object design model before transformation
Advertiser

Account

Source code after transformation

public class Advertiser { private Account account; public Advertiser() { account = new Account(); } public Account getAccount() { return account; } }
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Bidirectional one-to-one association


Object design model before transformation
Advertiser

Account

Source code after transformation


public class Advertiser { /* The account field is initialized * in the constructor and never * modified. */ private Account account; public Advertiser() { account = new Account(this); } public Account getAccount() { return account; } }
Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit

public class Account { /* The owner field is initialized * during the constructor and * never modified. */ private Advertiser owner; public Account(owner:Advertiser) { this.owner = owner; } public Advertiser getOwner() { return owner; } }
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Bidirectional, one-to-many association


Object design model before transformation
Advertiser 1 * Account

Source code after transformation


public class Account { public class Advertiser { private Advertiser owner; private Set accounts; public void setOwner(Advertiser newOwner) public Advertiser() { { accounts = new HashSet(); if (owner != newOwner) { } Advertiser old = owner; public void addAccount(Account a) { owner = newOwner; accounts.add(a); if (newOwner != null) a.setOwner(this); newOwner.addAccount(this); } if (oldOwner != null) public void removeAccount(Account a) old.removeAccount(this); { } accounts.remove(a); } a.setOwner(null); } } } Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 16

Bidirectional, many-to-many association


Object design model before transformation
Tournament * {ordered} * Player

Source code after transformation


public class Tournament { public class Player { private List players; private List tournaments; public Tournament() { public Player() { players = new ArrayList(); tournaments = new ArrayList(); } } public void addPlayer(Player p) { public void addTournament(Tournament t) { if (!players.contains(p)) { if (!tournaments.contains(t)) { players.add(p); tournaments.add(t); p.addTournament(this); t.addPlayer(this); } } } } } } Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 17

Bidirectional qualified association


Object design model before transformation
League * * Player nickName

Object design model before forward engineering


League nickName * 0..1 Player

Source code after forward engineering

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Bidirectional qualified association (continued)


Source code after forward engineering
public class League { private Map players; public class Player { private Map leagues;

public void addPlayer (String nickName, Player p) { if (!players.containsKey(nickName)) { players.put(nickName, p); p.addLeague(nickName, this); } }
} }

public void addLeague (String nickName, League l) { if (!leagues.containsKey(l)) { leagues.put(l, nickName); l.addPlayer(nickName, this); } }

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Transformation of an association class


Object design model before transformation
Statistics +getAverageStat(name) +getTotalStat(name) +updateStats(match) Tournament Player

Object design model after transformation: 1 class and two binary associations
Statistics

+getAverageStat(name) +getTotalStat(name) +updateStats(match) 1 1


Tournament
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Player
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Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

Other Mapping Activities


Optimizing the Object Design Model Mapping Associations Mapping Contracts to Exceptions Mapping Object Models to Tables

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Exceptions as building blocks for contract violations


Many object-oriented languages, including Java do not include built-in support for contracts. However, we can use their exception mechanisms as building blocks for signaling and handling contract violations In Java we use the try-throw-catch mechanism Example:
Let us assume the acceptPlayer() operation of TournamentControl is invoked with a player who is already part of the Tournament. In this case acceptPlayer() should throw an exception of type KnownPlayer. See source code on next slide

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The try-throw-catch Mechanism in Java


public class TournamentControl { private Tournament tournament; public void addPlayer(Player p) throws KnownPlayerException { if (tournament.isPlayerAccepted(p)) { throw new KnownPlayerException(p); } //... Normal addPlayer behavior } } public class TournamentForm { private TournamentControl control; private ArrayList players; public void processPlayerApplications() { // Go through all the players for (Iteration i = players.iterator(); i.hasNext();) { try { // Delegate to the control object. control.acceptPlayer((Player)i.next()); } catch (KnownPlayerException e) { // If an exception was caught, log it to the console ErrorConsole.log(e.getMessage()); } } } } Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 23

Implementing a contract
For each operation in the contract, do the following Check precondition: Check the precondition before the beginning of the method with a test that raises an exception if the precondition is false. Check postcondition: Check the postcondition at the end of the method and raise an exception if the contract is violoated. If more than one postcondition is not satisfied, raise an exception only for the first violation. Check invariant: Check invariants at the same time as postconditions. Deal with inheritance: Encapsulate the checking code for preconditions and postconditions into separate methods that can be called from subclasses.
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A complete implementation of the Tournament.addPlayer() contract


invariant getMaxNumPlayers() > 0

precondition !isPlayerAccepted(p)

Tournament -maxNumPlayers: int +getNumPlayers():int +getMaxNumPlayers():int +isPlayerAccepted(p:Player):boolean +addPlayer(p:Player)

precondition getNumPlayers() < getMaxNumPlayers()


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postcondition isPlayerAccepted(p)

Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

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Heuristics for Mapping Contracts to Exceptions


Be pragmatic, if you dont have enough time. Omit checking code for postconditions and invariants.
Usually redundant with the code accomplishing the functionality of the class Not likely to detect many bugs unless written by a separate tester.

Omit the checking code for private and protected methods. Focus on components with the longest life
Focus on Entity objects, not on boundary objects associated with the user interface.

Reuse constraint checking code.


Many operations have similar preconditions. Encapsulate constraint checking code into methods so that they can share the same exception classes.
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Other Mapping Activities


Optimizing the Object Design Model Mapping Associations Mapping Contracts to Exceptions Mapping Object Models to Tables

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Mapping an object model to a relational database

UML object models can be mapped to relational databases:


Some degradation occurs because all UML constructs must be mapped to a single relational database construct - the table.

UML mappings
Each class is mapped to a table Each class attribute is mapped onto a column in the table An instance of a class represents a row in the table A many-to-many association is mapped into its own table A one-to-many association is implemented as buried foreign key

Methods are not mapped

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Mapping the User class to a database table

User +firstName:String +login:String +email:String

User table id:long firstName:text[25] login:text[8] email:text[32]

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Primary and Foreign Keys


Any set of attributes that could be used to uniquely identify any data record in a relational table is called a candidate key. The actual candidate key that is used in the application to identify the records is called the primary key.
The primary key of a table is a set of attributes whose values uniquely identify the data records in the table.

A foreign key is an attribute (or a set of attributes) that references the primary key of another table.

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Example for Primary and Foreign Keys


User table
firstName alice john bob
Primary key

login am384 js289 bd


Candidate key

email am384@mail.org john@mail.de bobd@mail.ch


Candidate key login am384 am384

League table

name tictactoeNovice tictactoeExpert

chessNovice

js289
Foreign key referencing User table

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Buried Association

Associations with multiplicity one can be implemented using a foreign key. For one-to-many associations we add a foreign key to the table representing the class on the many end. For all other associations we can select either class at the end of the association.

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Buried Association

Associations with multiplicity one can be implemented using a foreign key. Because the association vanishes in the table, we call this a buried association. For one-to-many associations we add the foreign key to the table representing the class on the many end. For all other associations we can select either class at the end of the association.
LeagueOwner 1 *

League

LeagueOwner table id:long ... id:long

League table ... owner:long

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Another Example for Buried Association


Portfolio portfolioID ...

Transaction

* Foreign Key

transactionID

Transaction Table transactionID portfolioID

Portfolio Table portfolioID ...

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Mapping Many-To-Many Associations


In this case we need a separate table for the association
City * Serves * Airport airportCode airportName

cityName

Separate table for Serves association

Primary Key City Table cityName Houston Albany Munich Hamburg Airport Table airportCode IAH HOU ALB MUC HAM airportName Intercontinental Hobby Albany County Munich Airport Hamburg Airport Serves Table cityName airportCode IAH Houston HOU Houston ALB Albany MUC Munich HAM Hamburg
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Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

Mapping the Tournament/Player association as a separate table

Tournament *

Player

Tournament table id 23 24 name novice exper t ... TournamentPlayerAssociation table tournament 23 23 player 56 79 id 56 79

Player table name alice john ...

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Realizing Inheritance

Relational databases do not support inheritance Two possibilities to map UML inheritance relationships to a database schema
With a separate table (vertical mapping) The attributes of the superclass and the subclasses are mapped to different tables By duplicating columns (horizontal mapping) There is no table for the superclass Each subclass is mapped to a table containing the attributes of the subclass and the attributes of the superclass

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Realizing inheritance with a separate table


User name

LeagueOwner maxNumLeagues

Player credits

User table id 56 79 LeagueOwner table id 56 maxNumLeagues 12 ... id 79


Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

name zoe john

...

role LeagueOwner Pla yer Player table credits 126


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...

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Realizing inheritance by duplicating columns

User name

LeagueOwner maxNumLeagues

Player credits

LeagueOwner table id 56 name zoe maxNumLeagues ... 12 id 79

Player table name john credits 126 ...

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Comparison: Separate Tables vs Duplicated Columns

The trade-off is between modifiability and response time


How likely is a change of the superclass? What are the performance requirements for queries?

Separate table mapping


We can add attributes to the superclass easily by adding a column to the superclass table Searching for the attributes of an object requires a join operation.

Duplicated columns
Modifying the database schema is more complex and error-prone Individual objects are not fragmented across a number of tables, resulting in faster queries

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Heuristics for Transformations

For a given transformation use the same tool


If you are using a CASE tool to map associations to code, use the tool to change association multiplicities.

Keep the contracts in the source code, not in the object design model
By keeping the specification as a source code comment, they are more likely to be updated when the source code changes.

Use the same names for the same objects


If the name is changed in the model, change the name in the code and or in the database schema. Provides traceability among the models

Have a style guide for transformations


By making transformations explicit in a manual, all developers can apply the transformation in the same way.
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Summary

Undisciplined changes => degradation of the system model Four mapping concepts were introduced
Model transformation improves the compliance of the object design model with a design goal Forward engineering improves the consistency of the code with respect to the object design model Refactoring improves the readability or modifiability of the code Reverse engineering attempts to discover the design from the code.

We reviewed model transformation and forward engineering techniques:


Optiziming the class model Mapping associations to collections Mapping contracts to exceptions Mapping class model to storage schemas
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Additional Slides

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More Terminology

Roundtrip Engineering
Forward Engineering + reverse engineering Inventory analysis: Determine the Delta between Object Model and Code Together-J and Rationale provide tools for reverse engineering

Reengineering
Used in the context of project management: Provding new functionality (customer dreams up new stuff) in the context of new technology (technology enablers)

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Statistics as a product in the Game Abstract Factory


Tournament Game createStatistics()

TicTacToeGame

ChessGame

Statistics
update() getStat()

TTTStatistics
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ChessStatistics

DefaultStatistics
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Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java

N-ary association class Statistics Statistics relates League, Tournament, and Player
Statistics

1 1 1 0..1 Game 0..1 League

* 0..1 Tournament 0..1 Player

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Realization of the Statistics Association

TournamentControl StatisticsView

StatisticsVault update(match) getStatNames(game) getStat(name,game,player) getStat(name,league,player) getStat(name,tournament,player)

Statistics update(match,player) getStatNames() getStat(name)

Game createStatistics()
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StatisticsVault as a Facade

TournamentControl StatisticsView

StatisticsVault update(match) getStatNames(game) getStat(name,game,player) getStat(name,league,player) getStat(name,tournament,player)

Statistics update(match,player) getStatNames() getStat(name) Game createStatistics()

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Public interface of the StatisticsVault class


public class StatisticsVault { public void update(Match m) throws InvalidMatch, MatchNotCompleted {...} public List getStatNames() {...} public double getStat(String name, Game g, Player p) throws UnknownStatistic, InvalidScope {...} public double getStat(String name, League l, Player p) throws UnknownStatistic, InvalidScope {...}

public double getStat(String name, Tournament t, Player p) throws UnknownStatistic, InvalidScope {...}
}
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Database schema for the Statistics Association

Statistics table id:long scope:long scopetype:long player:long

StatisticCounters table id:long name:text[25] value:double

Game table

League table

Tournament table

id:long

...

id:long

...

id:long

...

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Restructuring Activities

Realizing associations Revisiting inheritance to increase reuse Revising inheritance to remove implementation dependencies

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Realizing Associations

Strategy for implementing associations:


Be as uniform as possible Individual decision for each association

Example of uniform implementation


1-to-1 association:

Role names are treated like attributes in the classes and translate to references "Ordered many" : Translate to Vector "Unordered many" : Translate to Set Translate to Hash table

1-to-many association:

Qualified association:

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Unidirectional 1-to-1 Association

Object design model before transformation


ZoomInAction MapArea

Object design model after transformation


ZoomInAction MapArea
-zoomIn:ZoomInAction +getZoomInAction() +setZoomInAction(action)

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Bidirectional 1-to-1 Association

Object design model before transformation


ZoomInAction
1 1

MapArea

Object design model after transformation


ZoomInAction
-targetMap:MapArea +getTargetMap() +setTargetMap(map)

MapArea
-zoomIn:ZoomInAction +getZoomInAction() +setZoomInAction(action)

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1-to-Many Association

Object design model before transformation


Layer 1 * LayerElement

Object design model after transformation


Layer -layerElements:Set +elements() +addElement(le) +removeElement(le) LayerElement -containedIn:Layer +getLayer() +setLayer(l)

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Qualification

Object design model before transformation


Scenario simname

0..1

SimulationRun

Object design model after transformation


Scenario -runs:Hashtable +elements() +addRun(simname,sr:SimulationRun) +removeRun(simname,sr:SimulationRun) SimulationRun -scenarios:Vector +elements() +addScenario(s:Scenario) +removeScenario(s:Scenario)

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Increase Inheritance

Rearrange and adjust classes and operations to prepare for inheritance Abstract common behavior out of groups of classes
If a set of operations or attributes are repeated in 2 classes the classes might be special instances of a more general class.

Be prepared to change a subsystem (collection of classes) into a superclass in an inheritance hierarchy.

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Building a super class from several classes

Prepare for inheritance. All operations must have the same signature but often the signatures do not match:
Some operations have fewer arguments than others: Use overloading (Possible in Java) Similar attributes in the classes have different names: Rename attribute and change all the operations. Operations defined in one class but no in the other: Use virtual functions and class function overriding.

Abstract out the common behavior (set of operations with same signature) and create a superclass out of it. Superclasses are desirable. They
increase modularity, extensibility and reusability improve configuration management

Turn the superclass into an abstract interface if possible


Use Bridge pattern
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Object Design Areas


1. Service specification
Describes precisely each class interface

2. Component selection
Identify off-the-shelf components and additional solution objects

3. Object model restructuring


Transforms the object design model to improve its understandability and extensibility

4. Object model optimization


Transforms the object design model to address performance criteria such as response time or memory utilization.

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Design Optimizations

Design optimizations are an important part of the object design phase:


The requirements analysis model is semantically correct but often too inefficient if directly implemented.

Optimization activities during object design:


1. Add redundant associations to minimize access cost 2. Rearrange computations for greater efficiency 3. Store derived attributes to save computation time

As an object designer you must strike a balance between efficiency and clarity.
Optimizations will make your models more obscure

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Design Optimization Activities


1. Add redundant associations:
What are the most frequent operations? ( Sensor data lookup?) How often is the operation called? (30 times a month, every 50 milliseconds)

2. Rearrange execution order


Eliminate dead paths as early as possible (Use knowledge of distributions, frequency of path traversals) Narrow search as soon as possible Check if execution order of loop should be reversed

3. Turn classes into attributes

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Implement Application domain classes


To collapse or not collapse: Attribute or association? Object design choices:


Implement entity as embedded attribute Implement entity as separate class with associations to other classes

Associations are more flexible than attributes but often introduce unnecessary indirection. Abbott's textual analysis rules Every student receives a number at the first day in in the university.

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Optimization Activities: Collapsing Objects

Matrikelnumber Student ID:String

Student Matrikelnumber:String

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To Collapse or not to Collapse?

Collapse a class into an attribute if the only operations defined on the attributes are Set() and Get().

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Design Optimizations (continued)


Store derived attributes
Example: Define new classes to store information locally (database cache)

Problem with derived attributes:


Derived attributes must be updated when base values change. There are 3 ways to deal with the update problem:

Explicit code: Implementor determines affected derived attributes (push) Periodic computation: Recompute derived attribute occasionally (pull) Active value: An attribute can designate set of dependent values which are automatically updated when active value is changed (notification, data trigger)

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Optimization Activities: Delaying Complex Computations Image


filename:String data:byte[] width() height() paint()

Image filename:String width() height() paint()

image

ImageProxy
filename:String width() height() paint()

0..1

RealImage data:byte[] width() height() paint()

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Increase Inheritance

Rearrange and adjust classes and operations to prepare for inheritance


Generalization: Finding the base class first, then the sub classes. Specialization: Finding the the sub classes first, then the base class

Generalization is a common modeling activity. It allows to abstract common behavior out of a group of classes
If a set of operations or attributes are repeated in 2 classes the classes might be special instances of a more general class.

Always check if it is possible to change a subsystem (collection of classes) into a superclass in an inheritance hierarchy.
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Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit

Generalization: Building a super class from several classes


You need to prepare or modify your classes for generalization. All operations must have the same signature but often the signatures do not match:

Some operations have fewer arguments than others: Use overloading (Possible in Java) Similar attributes in the classes have different names: Rename attribute and change all the operations. Operations defined in one class but no in the other: Use virtual functions and class function overriding.

Superclasses are desirable. They


increase modularity, extensibility and reusability improve configuration management

Many design patterns use superclasses

Try to retrofit an existing model to allow the use of a design pattern Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 68

Implement Associations

Two strategies for implementing associations:


1. Be as uniform as possible 2. Make an individual decision for each association

Example of a uniform implementation (often used by CASE tools)


1-to-1 association:

Role names are treated like attributes in the classes and translate to references Always Translate into a Vector Always translate into to Hash table

1-to-many association:

Qualified association:

Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit

Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems

69