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By Nanditha Devidasan Reg No:CUAGMCA012 S5 MCA
BPL is a term used to describe the existing electrical lines to provide the medium for high speed communication network. BPL layers high speed internet access over existing electric wiring. BPL also known as power line communication is achieved by super imposing voice or data signal onto the line carrier. BPL also known as powerline telecommunication capable of providing high data rates. PLB-Power line broad band.
What is PLC. Working of PLC. PLC Encoding. PLC Backbone. PLC into home. Categories of PLC. Applications. Issues. Advantages. Limitations. Challenges. Conclusions.
In this figure BPL can be used to inter connect PCs or other devices within a building using the building’s wiring
WHAT IS PLC
PLC or BPL allows transmission of data over power lines. Power line communications uses the RF signal sent over medium and low voltage AC power lines. The RF signal is modulated with digital information that is converted by an interface in the home or small business into Ethernet compatible data.
WORKING OF PLC
Power gridPower grid is a system of high tension cables by which electrical power is distributed through out a region. Power grid also uses generators, substations, transformers and other distributors that carry electricity from the power plant all the way to a plug in the wall. Power is generated at Power stations and distributed around a medium to large geographical area via HV lines or High Voltage lines. In areas where power needs to be distributed to consumers transformers will be used to convert this high voltage into a lower voltage for transport over MV or Medium Voltage lines. These transformers are generally located at electrical substations operated by the utility or power supplier. Such medium voltage lines will be used to transport electricity around smaller geographical areas such as towns and small countries etc.
A typical BPL system consists of four basic functions.
The injector is used to put the internet protocol signal onto the power line. The repeater is used to boost the signal. The extractor is used to take the internet protocol signal off the power line. The modem is used to transfer the internet signal from the power outlet to the computer.
The BPL modem simply plugs into the wall and then into your computer. These modems are capable of speeds comparable to DSLBPL cable modems. or
Various encoding schemes.
GMSk- Used with Single Carrier Version of PLC providing low bandwidth<1MB. CDMA-Used with single carrier version of PLC providing low bandwidths<1MB OFDM-Used with the multi carrier version of PLC providing a bandwidth of 45MB.
PLC Back bones
PLC into HOME
There are 2 means getting the broadband into home from electrical pole.
Using Wireless Device.-One method is to use a wireless device located on the power line to broadcast a radio signal containing the data with a receiver located in the home. Passing via a transformer.-The alternative is to allow the PLC frequencies to either skip around or pass through the transformer and continue onto the home allowing any devices with PLC connections to be plugged in anywhere in the home.
Categories of PLC or BPL
In building BPL-These BPL systems use the buildings elecrtrical wiring to network computers within a building. Access BPL-Access BPL uses electrical distribution lines. Control BPL- This control BPL operates below 500khz
Electrical Power Lines
128Kbps 2 X 64kbps B Channels 1 x 16kbps D Channel for signalling online
Theoretical carrying capacity of coax is hundreds of times greater than twisted pair. However the full capacity of the cable is not available for data users
ADSL providers give specific statements about the bandwidth e.g. 1Mbps Downstream, 256Kbps Upstream and generally achieve 80% of it consistently. Dedicated Most people have telephones but not all users are close enough to their end office to get ADSL. Secure as ADSL is a point-topoint medium.
PLC now supports higher data rates such as 45Mbps.
Shared Not everyone has cable but if you do have cable and the cable company provides internet access you can get it.
On demand only
Power Grid is everywhere.
Dedicated Connection so it is reasonably secure.
Any cable user can easily read all the packets going down the cable. l.
Latest PLC technology uses secure data encryption.
Telephone network is generally more reliable than cable. .
With cable, if the power goes to any amplifier along the line, all downstream users are cut off instantly.
Telephone network is generally more reliable than cable.
If the power goes down, obviously no data will be sent. -Good Performance -Permanently on-line -Good geographical coverage
-Mature and Robust -Widely Available (in urban areas)
-Excellent Performance -Permanently on-line
-Good performance -Permanently on-line
-Expensive for consumer market -On demand only
-Limited geographical coverage -currently only available in certain areas BPL -contention based
-Length of local loop affects performance -contention based (different ISP’s have different contention ratios
-Still at development stage -Has no significant customer base yet
In house applications-These applications occur within a single building with both ends of the communications link within the same building. The building might be a house, an apartment block or an office building. The path over which the transfer of data occurs within these buildings is relatively short - typically it is less than 100 m between devices. Systems using higher These applications occur within a single building with both ends of communications.
Last –Mile-These applications typically include the distribution to the home or office of Internet and other services by broadband service suppliers. In addition to broadband Internet connections, these broadband distribution systems are intended to also provide voice (IP telephony), video (VHS video quality), surveillance systems, entertainment (gaming) and utilities metering (electricity/water/gas) services
Compatibility between private and public works Telecommunications policy issues. Radio communication issues.
PLC provides many advantages for providers of the service and also more importantly for the end users of the service.
Coverage-A power grid is every where.
The equipment needed to set-up PLC is cheaper than that of DSL and cable modems. Using existing power outlets in home making is easier to set up. For users in rural areas ,who cannot receive DSL or cable modems PLC can provide an all in one service.
Electric Internet Benefits.
Affordable-uses existing electrical wiring. Easy to use-No software is necessary simply plug and play. Reliable-It provides universal coverage. Fast-6 million bits per second.
Media limitations. Distances. Equipment. Cost. Competition. Security.
Economic model is still somewhat unproven. Technology will need more testing. -Testing for manufacturability, reliability. The technology is not future proof. Radio interference-, if large scale, may shut off the technology very quickly.. Other competing wireless broadband technologies have great promise and big backers.
BPL is only one of many technologies for delivery of highspeed data communications for Internet access. BPL may potentially be used as the communications solution for numerous Utility Applications. BPL offers a potential new alternative for broadband Internet services. BPL systems deliver high-speed data services over the existing power lines by conduction of radio frequency energy
http://www.antennex.com/shack/Aug03/plc.htm http://www.lonestarbroadband.org/technology/powerlines.htm http:// www.wikipedia.org http://www.homeplug.org http://www.linksys.com
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