Chapter 1

Introduction to Management and  Organizations

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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LEARNING OUTLINE
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter

• Who Are Managers? – Explain how managers differ from nonmanagerial  employees – Discuss how to classify managers in organizations. • What Is Management? – Define management – Explain why efficiency and effectiveness are  important to management
Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter

•  What Do Managers Do?
– Describe the four functions of management – Explain Mintzberg’s managerial roles – Describe Katz’s three essential managerial skills and  how the importance of these skills changes depending  on managerial level

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter

•  What Is an Organization?
– Describe the characteristics of an organization – Explain how the concept of an organization is  changing •  The Challenges Managers Face – Describe the current trends and issues facing  managers
Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter

• What Is Corporate Social Responsibility?
– Contrast the classical and socio­economic views of  social responsibility – Discuss the role that stakeholders play in the four  approaches to social responsibility – The relationship between corporate social  responsibility and economic performance
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Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter

• Understanding workforce diversity
– Accommodating diverse members in the organization

• Why Study Management? – Explain the universality of management concept – Discuss why an understanding of management is  important even if you don’t plan to be a manager

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Who Are Managers?
• Manager
– Someone who works with and through other  people by coordinating their work activities in  order to accomplish organizational goals

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Types of Managers
• First­line Managers • Middle Managers • Top Managers
– Are at the lowest level of management and manage the  work of nonmanagerial employees – Manage the work of first­line managers – Are responsible for making organization­wide decisions  and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire  organization
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Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Exhibit 1.1 Managerial Levels
Top Managers Middle Managers First-Line Managers Nonmanagerial Employees
Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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What Is Management?
• Managerial Concerns
– Efficiency
• “Doing things right” – Getting the most output for the least input

– Effectiveness
• “Doing the right things” – Attaining organizational goals

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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What Do Managers Do?
• Functional Approach
– Planning
• Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals,  developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities • Arranging work to accomplish organizational goals • Working with and through people to accomplish goals • Monitoring, comparing, and correcting the work
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– Organizing – Leading

– Controlling

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Exhibit 1.2 Management Functions
Planning Defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing subplans to coordinate activities Organizing Determining what needs to be done, how it will be done, and who is to do it Leading Directing and motivating all involved parties and resolving conflicts Controlling Lead to Monitoring activities to ensure that they are accomplished as planned Achieving the organization’s stated purpose

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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What Do Managers Do? (cont’d
• Mintzberg’s Management Roles Approach (Exhibit  1.3)
– Interpersonal roles
• Figurehead, leader, liaison

– Informational roles
• Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson

– Decisional roles
• Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator,  negotiator
Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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What Do Managers Do? (cont’d)
• Skills Approach
– Technical skills
• Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field

– Human skills
• The ability to work well with other people

– Conceptual skills
• The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and  complex situations concerning the organization
Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 1.4 Skills Needed at Different Management Levels
Top Managers Middle Managers Lower-level Managers Importance
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Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical Skills

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

What Is An Organization?
• An Organization Defined
– A deliberate arrangement of people to  accomplish some specific purpose

• Common Characteristics of Organizations
– Have a distinct purpose (goal) – Are composed of people – Have a deliberate structure
Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 1.5 Characteristics of Organizations
Distinct Purpose People Deliberate Structure

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 1.6 The Changing Organization
Traditional
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Stable Inflexible Job­focused Work is defined by job positions Individual­oriented Permanent jobs Command­oriented Managers always make decisions Rule­oriented Relatively homogeneous workforce Workdays defined as 9 to 5 Hierarchical relationships Work at organizational facility  during specific hours

New Organization
• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Dynamic Flexible Skills­focused Work is defined in terms of tasks to  be done Team­oriented Temporary jobs Involvement­oriented Employees participate in decision  making Customer­oriented Diverse workforce Workdays have no time boundaries Lateral and networked  relationships Work anywhere, anytime 
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Sizes and Types of Organizations
• Managers and employees work in a variety of sizes of  organizations – Large organizations represent only 3% of the organizations in  Canada • Managers and employees work in a variety of organizations, and  the type of organization has an impact on what managers can do – Publicly held organizations – Privately held organizations – Public sector organizations – Crown Corporations – Subsidiaries of foreign organizations (e.g., Sears, Safeway,  General Motors, and Ford Motor Company)
Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Challenges Managers Face
• Ethics
– Increased emphasis on ethics education in  university and college curriculums – Increased creation and use of codes of ethics by  businesses – Pursuing long­term goals that are good for  society
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• Corporate Social Responsibility

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Corporate Social Responsibility
• The Classical View
– Maximize profits for the benefit of the  stockholders – Doing “social good” unjustifiably increases costs

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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What Is Social Responsibility? (cont’d)
• The Socio­economic View
– Management should also protect and improve  society’s welfare – Corporations are responsible not only to  stockholders – Firms have a moral responsibility to larger  society “to do the right thing”
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Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

Exhibit 1.7 Approaches to Social Responsibility
 
Obstructionist Approach Disregard for social responsibility Defensive Approach Minimal commitment to social responsibility Accommodative Approach Moderate commitment to social responsibility Proactive Approach Strong commitment to social responsibility

No Social Responsibility

High Social Responsibility

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Workforce Diversity
• Workforce diversity
– Refers to employees in organizations who are  heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, ethnicity,  or other characteristics
• A global issue • Canada recognizes and celebrates differences • Managers must make organizations more accommodating

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Why Study Management?
• The Value of Studying Management
– The universality of management
• Good management is needed in all organizations

– The reality of work
• Employees either manage or are managed

– Self­employment
• Management is also important in running your own  business
Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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Exhibit 1.8 Universal Need for Management
All Sizes of Organizations Small Large

All Organizational Areas Manufacturing —Marketing Human Resources —Accounting Information Systems —etc.

Management Is Needed in...

All Types of Organizations Profit Not-for-Profit

All Organization Levels Bottom Top

Chapter 1, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Management, Fifth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada

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