You are on page 1of 29

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

EMITTING DIODE

ORGANIC LIGHT
1

presented by
Bhaskar Ghosh ece-01 roll-50 th rd 6 SEM, 3 year
Supreme Knowledge Foundation Group of Institutions (Sir J. C. Bose School of Engineering)

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

CONTENTS.
Introduction History of OLEDs Architecture of OLEDs Working principle Various types of OLEDs Applications and advantages Conclusion Bibliography

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

INTRODUCTION What indeed is OLED.??!!

16th March, 2013

OLEDs are solid-state devices, a self light-emitting technology composed of a thin, multi-layered organic film placed between an anode and cathode. In contrast to LCD/TFT technology, OLED does not require a backlight.
brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today.

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

16th March, 2013

OLED.. The trend for next generation..

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

HISTORY OF OLED.

16th March, 2013

First developed in the early 1950s in France Early technology would emit a short burst of light when a voltage was applied 1960s - AC-driven electroluminescent cells using doped anthracites was developed In a 1977 paper, Shirakawa et al. Reported high conductivity in similarly oxidized and iodine-doped poly acetylene.

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

In 1987 Chin Tang and Van Slyke introduced the first light emitting diodes from thin organic layers.
In 1990 electroluminescence in polymers was discovered.

16th March, 2013

HOW TO MAKE OLED???

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

16th March, 2013

ARCHITECTURE OF OLEDS..

The basic OLED cell structure consists of a stack of thin organic layers sandwiched between a transparent anode and a metallic cathode. The organic layers comprise a hole-injection layer, a hole-transport layer, an emissive layer, and an electron-transport layer. Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil) - The substrate supports the OLED. Anode (transparent) - The anode removes electrons (adds electron "holes") when a current flows through the device. ORGANIC LAYER. Conducting layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is poly aniline.

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

Emissive layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules (different ones from the conducting layer) that transport electrons from the cathode; this is where light is made. One polymer used in the emissive layer is poly fluorine.

Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) - The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device.
16th March, 2013

10

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

WORKING PRINCIPLE..
16th March, 2013

A voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. This causes a current of electrons to flow through the device from cathode to anode. Thus, the cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer and the anode withdraws electrons from the conductive layer. In other words, the anode gives electron holes to the conductive layer.

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

Soon, the emissive layer becomes negatively charged, while the conductive layer becomes rich in positively charged holes. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and recombine. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons (unlike in inorganic semiconductors).

11

The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons, accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. That is why this layer is called emissive.
16th March, 2013

12

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

MOTIVATION

13

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

TYPES OF OLEDS.

White

14

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

15

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

16

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

Transparent

17

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

FLEXIBLE!!

18

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

CURRENT RESEARCH FOR OLEDS


16th March, 2013

Manufacturers focusing on finding a cheap way to produce "Roll-to-Roll" Manufacturing Increasing efficiency of blue luminance Boosting overall lifespan

19

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

APPLICATIONS OF OLEDS
16th March, 2013

TVs Cell Phone screens Computer Screens Keyboards (Optimum Maximum) Lights Portable Device displays

20

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

ADVANTAGES OF OLEDS
OLED Displays Vs. LCD and Plasma
Much

16th March, 2013

faster response time Consume significantly less energy Wider viewing angles Thinner display Better contrast ratio Safer for the environment OLEDs refresh almost 1,000 times faster then LCDs

21

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

16th March, 2013 supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

OLED Lighting Vs. Incandescent and Fluorescent

Cheaper way to create flexible lighting Requires less power New design concepts for interior lighting Better quality of light (i.e. no "Cold Light")

22

DISADVANTAGES OF OLEDS
OLED Displays Vs. LCD and Plasma

16th March, 2013 supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

Cost to manufacture is high


Overall luminance degradation Constraints water Limited market availability

23

FUTURE USES FOR OLED

Lighting
Flexible / bendable lighting Wallpaper lighting defining new ways to light a space Transparent lighting doubles as a window

16th March, 2013 supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

Cell Phones

24

Transparent GPS

Car Navigation System on Windshield


16th March, 2013

system Nokias future plan is to launch laptops using OLED.

25

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

CONCLUSION

16th March, 2013

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Arthur C. Clarke Such is the impact of technology in our daily lives and with time OLED indeed seems to have engulfed a major part in every individuals lifestyle. From 1950s , since OLEDs were 1st developed up to the 21st century, Science has travelled a long path and so has the technology of OLEDs . In recent era OLED find its importance in both commercial purpose and daily lives, and with progressing time OLED is going to be an inseparable part of technology.

26

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

REFERENCES
16th March, 2013

www. howstuffworks.com www. wikipedia.org A. Bernanose M. Comte, P. Vaux J. Chim. Phys. 1953, 50, 64 (eBook). T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu & J. C. Sturm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 519 (1998) (eBook) J. Bharathan & Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2660 (1998) (eBook)

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

27

28

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.

29

16th March, 2013

supreme knowledge foundation group of institutions.