Leadership “Leadership is the ability to influence others to do what you want them to do.” .Definition .

What Is Leadership?  Leadership  The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals  Management  Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members  Both are necessary for organizational success .

while a leader has an eye on the horizon  A manager does things right. but a leader inspires trust  A manager keeps an eye on the bottom line. a leader does the right thing.Difference between a manager and a leader: A manager administers. whereas a leader’s focus is on people  A manager relies on control. while a leader develops  A manager focuses on systems and structures. but a leader innovates  A manager maintains. .

 AUTOCRATIC • • • • Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else High degree of dependency on the leader Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively . Democratic & Laissez Faire. The Schmitt model divides leaders into three categories: Autocratic. It will be referred to as the Schmitt model.STYLES OF Styles of LEADERSHIP leadership • One models best describe the vast array of leaders.

DEMOCRATIC • Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation – Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken – Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct – May help motivation and involvement – Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas – Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business – Can delay decision making LAISSEZ FAIRE – Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all – Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important – Can be highly motivational as people have control over their working life – Can make coordination and decision making time consuming and lacking in overall direction – Relies on good team work – Relies on good interpersonal relations .

 Theories that consider personality. social. or Trait Theories of Leadership intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders  Not very useful until matched with the Big Five Personality Framework  Leadership Traits  Extroversion  Conscientiousness  Openness  Emotional Intelligence (Qualified)  Traits can predict leadership. but they are better at predicting leader emergence than effectiveness. physical. .

. Charismatic leaders are said to exert especially powerful CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP effects on the followers by virtue of the attributions followers make about them. present articulated vision. Such individuals have high amount of selfconfidence. are recognized as change agents .  These leaders have extraordinary success in generating profound changes in their followers. are sensitive to the environmental constraints they face. behave in extraordinary ways .

so we must identify the proper behaviors to teach potential leaders . so we must identify the leader based on his or her traits  Behavioral theory: leadership is a skill set and can be taught to anyone. Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate Behavioral Theories of Leadership leaders from nonleaders  Differences between theories of leadership:  Trait theory: leadership is inherent.

 Ohio State University Important Behavioral Studies  Found two key dimensions of leader behavior:  Initiating structure – the defining and structuring of roles  Consideration – job relationships that reflect trust and respect  Both are important  University of Michigan  Also found two key dimensions of leader behavior:  Employee-oriented – emphasizes interpersonal relationships and is the most powerful dimension  Production-oriented – emphasizes the technical aspects of the job  The dimensions of the two studies are very similar .

 Draws on both studies to Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid® assess leadership style  “Concern for People” is Consideration and Employee-Orientation  “Concern for Production” is Initiating Structure and Production-Orientation  Style is determined by position on the graph .

 While trait and behavior theories do help us understand Contingency Theories leadership. an important component is missing: the environment in which the leader exists  Contingency Theory deals with this additional aspect of leadership effectiveness studies  Three key theories:  Fielder’s Model  Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory .

The theory that effective groups depend on proper match between a leader’s style interacting with subordinates and the degree which the situation gives control and influence the leader. It involves two factors: (a) Leaders Style SITUATIONAL THEORY a of to to (b) Situational Factors : (1) Subordinates Characteristics (2) Group Factors (3) Leader’s Situation (4) Organisational Factors .

 Effective group performance depends on the proper match Fiedler Model between leadership style and the situation  Assumes that leadership style (based on orientation revealed in LPC questionnaire) is fixed  Considers Three Situational Factors:  Leader-member relations: degree of confidence and trust in the leader  Task structure: degree of structure in the jobs  Position power: leader’s ability to hire. and reward  For effective leadership: must change to a leader who fits the situation or change the situational variables to fit the current leader . fire.

Graphic Representation of Fiedler’s Model Used to determine which type of leader to use in a given situation .

especially if the original eight situations are grouped into three  Problems: – The logic behind the LPC scale is not well understood – LPC scores are not stable – Contingency variables are complex and hard to determine . Positives: Assessment of Fiedler’s Model  Considerable evidence supports the model.

the adult releases more and more control over the situation  As the workers become more ready. A model that focuses on follower “readiness”  Followers can accept or reject the leader Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership  Effectiveness depends on the followers’ response to the leader’s actions  “Readiness” is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task  A paternal model:  As the child matures. the leader becomes more laissez-faire .

 Situational leadership model incorporates consideration and     initiating structure and extends these two dimensions of leadership to form four styles : Tell Sell Participate Delegate .

 Participative style: works best when the followers are able and unwilling. Telling style: provides clean and specific instructions that is .  Delegating style: works best when the followers are able and willing. the leader tells the subordinates what to do and how to perform various tasks. Works best when followers are unable and unwilling  Selling style: works best when followers unable and willing. . in selling style the leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for the follower’s lack of ability and high relationship orientation to get the follower’s to “buy into” the leader’s style.

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