Bones And Articulations Of Trunk

GanShengWei Department of Anatomy

Contents
Ⅰ. Vertebral column
1. Bones of vertebral column ⑴The external features of Vertebra ① The general external features of a typical V ② The external features of vertebrae in every region ③The external features of specia vertebrae ⒉Articulations of vertebral column

II. Thorax
1.Bones of thorax: ⑴ sternum ⑵ ribs 2.The articulations of thorax ⑴ The articulations between vertebrae and ribs. ⑵ The articulations between sternum and costal cartilages

Bones of trunk include vertebrae, sternum and ribs, which are connected by the articulations to form the vertebral column and thorax.

Bones of trunk articulations( synarthrosis and diarthrosis)

Vertebral column thorax

Ⅰ. Vertebral column
1. Bones
Cervical vertebae CV7

Thoracic vertebae TV12 Lumbar vertebrae LV5 Sacrum S1(5 separated sacral V. fused mutually to form sacrum) Col (4 separated coccygeal V. )

Coccyx

⑴The external features of Vertebra
① The general external features of a typical V. taking a thoracic V. as a typical V.
Vertebral body: almost rounded column superior vertebral notch pedicle inferior vertebral notch Vertebral arch: Lamina of vertebral arch; 7 processes on vertebral arch: Spinous process 1 transverse process 2 superior articular process2 inferior articular process 2 Facets: superior articular facets(a pair) inferior articular facets(a pair)

②The external features of vertebrae in every region
Cervical vertebae Thoracic vertebae Lumbar vertebrae

Sacrum Coccyx
After studing, you should know how to ditinguish them from the vertebrae.

③The external features of specia vertebrae
Location: Upper part of vertebral column: atlas, axis, Lower part of vertebral column: sacrum, coccyx Because of the different functions, the vertebrae in the upper and lower ends of vertebral column have been modified to become the special vertebrae. The atlas and axis fit the movements of the head; the function of sacrum and coccyx is protecting the pelivic organs and supporting the body weight .

⒉Articulations of vertebral column Including synarthrosis and diarthrosis

① Synarthrosis
intervertebral disc
anterior longitudinal lig posterior longitudinal lig

Ligaments: ligmenta flava
interspinous lig supraspinous lig

② Diarthrosis
a. intervertebral synovial joints zygapophysial joints b.articulations between the atlas and occipital bone atlantooccipital joints c. articulations between atlas and axis median atlantoaxial joint lateral atlantoaxial joints

II. Thorax
1.Bones of thorax ⑴ sternum
sternal manubrium sternal body xiphoid. 2nd costal cartilage is lateral to the sternal angle. Sternal angle can be easily palpated.
Sternal angle

⑵ ribs
there are 12 pairs of ribs in total True ribs: 1-7; false ribs: 8-10; floating ribs: 11-12 It is easier to master. Study by yourselves.

2.The articulations of thorax
⑴ The articulations between vertebrae and ribs
① costovertebral joint between the head of rib and the body of V. ② costotransverse joint between the tubercle of rib and transverse process.

⑵ The articulations between sternum and costal cartilages
① synchondrosis: between 1st rib and sternum ② sternocostal joints (synovial joints): between 2nd rib to 7th rib and sternum (notches of sternum) ③ interchondral joints (synovial joints): the 8th, 9th, 10th cartilages fused with each other. Costal arch: the 8th, 9th, 10th ribs, by means of their costal cartilages ,unite with the seventh cartilage to form the costal arch.

For human being the coccyx is a degenerated organ; while in some animals it is highly developed organs.

zygapophysial joint

atlantooccipital joint

atlantooccipital joints

median atlantoaxial joint

lateral atlantoaxial joints

costovertebral joint

costotransverse joint

Notice
The special attention should be paid to the following contents:

1.The appearance of the vertebral column as a whole.
⑴ The anterior view ⑵ The posterior view ⑶ The lateral view ⑷Some important structures : the intervertebral foramina the vertebral canal 2.The communication of the vertebral canal. 3. The movements of the vertebral column .

【 Summary 】 1.The appearance of the vertebral as a whole ⑴ Anterior aspect: The breadth of vertebral body from 2nd CV to 2nd sacral vertebral is increasing. ⑵ Dorsal aspect The tips of spinous processes are in the midline. ⑶ Lateral aspect The vertebral column presents 4 physiological curvatures. ⑷ The intervertebral foramen: the roots of spinal nerve pass through the foramen to distribute the body. ⑸The vertebral canal: it contains the spinal cord and its coverings.

2.The communication of the vertebral canal.
Superior (vertebral canal) cranial cavity Anterioinferior (anterior sacral foramina) pelvic cavity Posterosuperior (posterior sacral foramina) gluteal region Lateral (intervertebral foramina) trunk and limbs

3. Movements of the vertebral column
⑴Flexion and extion ⑵Lateral flexion ⑶Rotation ⑷Circumduction

⒋The thorax:
Key points: ⑴ Conical in shape
Superior aperture Inferior aperture

⑵ Diameters
Anterioposterior diameter Transverse diameter

⑶Pathological apperance
①Barrel-shaped thorax
Normally, the diameter from ant. to post. is shorter than the length from left to right. When somebody suffers from chronic pulmonary disease, his thoracic cage will become barrel-shaped. That means the ant. wall of thoracic cage gradually lift up. The oblique thoracic inlet gradually becomes horizontal.

②Chicken-breast
The ant. wall of thoracic cage convex forward.

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