The Female Reproductive System
GanSheng-Wei Department of Anatomy
A.To produce: ovum--maintaining the life of species B. Sexual hormone--maintaining the 2nd sexual female characteristics
Ⅰ. Internal genital organs
⒈ The gonad---ovary ⒉ The genital ducts uterine tubes uterus vagina
Ⅱ. External genital organs
⒈ Female pudendum
ⅠThe internal genital organs
⑴ The external features:
It’s almond in shape and situated in the ovarian fossa, which is between the bifurcation of the internal and external iliac arteries.
lateral and medial surfaces
anterior and posterior borders
tubal extremity (superior extremity) close to the fimbriae of uterine tube uterine extremity (inferior extremity ) connecting the fundus of the uterus
⑵ The structures of the ovary Proper ligament of ovary Susupensory ligament of ovary Hilum of ovary
⒉The uterine tubes
A funnel –shaped muscular tube Parts ⑴Uterine part ⑵Isthumus of uterine tube: ligation ⑶Ampulla of uterine tube: fertilization ⑷Infundibulum of uterine tube: abdominal orifice/ fimbrae
It’s a single , hollow, thick walled and pear-shaped muscular organ ⑴ The parts: fundus of uterus body of uterus isthumus of uterus cervix of uterus supravaginal part of cervix vaginal part of cervix ⑵ The cavity of uterus Cavity of uterus---a triangular space Cervical canal ---the cavity of cervix Orifice of uterus(anterior\posterior lip)
⑶The location of the uterus
it’s between the urinary bladder and rectum, so the normal anatomical position is:
Anteflexion the body and neck of the uterus form an obtuse angle. It’s called the anteflexion. Anteversion the long axis of the uterus and the vagina form an right angle. It’s called the anteversion.
⑷ The supporting structures of the uterus
Many structures, such as various ligaments, the muscles of pelvic floor, maintain the normal position of uterus. We put the stress on the ligaments: ① the broad lig. it’s composed of 2 layers of peritoneum between the lateral margin of the uterus and lateral wall of pelvis. Between the 2 layers of peritoneum, there are uterine tube, ovary, proper lig. of ovary, round lig. of uterus, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nervous plexus and connective tissue. Parts Mesovarium Mesosalpinx Mesometrium
② the round lig. it tends to keep the uterus in the anteverted position. ③ the cardinal lig. it’s the chief lig, supporting the uterus to prevent from dropping down into the vagina. ④ the uterosacral lig. hold the cervix of uterus in its normal position relative to the rectum.
⑴ it’s a muscular canal and a lower position of the “ birth canal” ⑵ the relation of neck of the uterus to the vagina The fornix: the upper portion of the vagina surrounds the vaginal portion of the neck of uterus, to form a circular recess , called fornix. The latter includes anterior fornix, bilateral fornix and the posterior fornix. The posterior wall of vagina and a layer of peritoneum are between the posterior fornix and the rectouterine pouch.
II. The external reproductive organs
Study by yourselves
Ⅰ. The ligaments of uterus Broad lig. / round lig. / cardinal lig. / uterosacral lig. Ⅱ The peritoneum and peritoneal cavity 1. The definition of the peritoneum it’s a layer of serous membrane lining the inner surface of the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity and covering the organs in these cavities. ⒉ The parts Parietal peritoneum: it lines the inner surface of the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity. Visceral peritoneum: it covers the organs in these cavities. Both of them are continuous membranes. The space between the parietal and visceral parts is called peritoneal cavity.(difference between male and
⒊The relationship between viscera and peritoneum
The different visceral organs have the different extent of the peritoneal investment. According to the differences of the peritoneal investment, the visceral organs can be divided into three categories:
⑴ The intraperitoneal visera.
If a viscera is completely surrounded by peritoneum the viscera is called the intraperitoneal viscera.
⑵ The interperitoneal viscera.
If the most surfaces of a viscus is wrapped by peritoneum, the viscus is called the interperitoneal viscus.
⑶The retroperitoneal viscera
if a viscus is situated in the retroperitoneal space, and only one surface of it is covered by peritoneum, the viscera is called the retroperitoneal viscera.
⒋The peritoneal reflections
The peritoneum reflects from one viscus to another or from the abdominal wall to the viscus. Through the process, the peritoneum forms the peritoneum reflection. According to the different location of the reflection, the reflections have different terms.
⑴ the omenta
A. the lesser omentum
It’s a peritoneal fold between the porta hepatis and the lesser curvature of the stomach as well as the commencemet of the duodenum. Hepatogastic lig. The lesser omentum Hepetoduodenal lig.
B. The greater omentum
It’s a double peritoneal sheet, 4 layers of peritoneum. The gastrocolic lig. is a part of the great omentum between the greater curvature of stomach and the transverse colon
⑵ The mesenteries and mesocolons.
①The mesentery of the small intestine ②The mesoappendix ③The transverse mesocolon ④The sigmoid mesocolon
⑶ The lig.
①The lig. related to liver ②Suspentory lig. of the duodenum(lig. of treitz) It’s an important landmark for the commencement of the jejunum.
⑷ The recesses and pouches recesses will be studied in regional anatomy. Pouch is a large fossa. For example: ①for male : the rectovesical pouch lies between the rectum and the urinary bladder
② for female The rectouterine pouch: perform the puncture of the posterior fornix to drain the blood for test. There are the posterior wall of the vagina and a layer of peritoneum between the posterior fornix of vagina and the rectouterine pouch. If the rectouterine pouch contains blood or fluid, the drainage may be performed through the posterior fornix. The vesicouterine pouch 5. The differences between the male peritoneal cavity and the female peritoneal cavity: Male---a completely closed space Female---it’s open to the outside through the female genital tubes.
Mesosalpinx Mesovarium Mesometrium