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ⅠVenous system of the body
A.Introduction: 1.The definition of vein: The so-called vein is a series of blood vesseles conducting the blood to the heart. 2.The factors of the effect on conducting blood from the vein to the heart (1)With the changes of the position of the body,the gravity force expels the blood to the heart. （ 2 ） The inspiration, making pressure within the thoracic cavity decreasing, improves the blood in vein to heart.
(3)The contraction of skeletal mm improves the blood in vein to heart (4)The beats of large arteries compel the blood to the heart. 3.The characteristics of the structures of vein(the differences between artery and vein) (1)The diameter of the lumen from distal to proximal is increasing.Therefore,the small v. is called the tributary of large v.,the wall is thin,blood flow in vein is slow.The volume of the blood in the venous system occupies 64% in total.Therefore,the veins are called
(2)Some of the venous blood vesseles have valves. (3)All of the venous blood vesseles can be divided into deep and superficial systems. a.Deep veins usually accompany anteries and follow the name of the arteries. b.Superficial veins are beneath the skin, therefore, they are called subcutanous vein. With some exception, most of the superficial veins do not have the accompanying arteries. Generally, the superficial veins anastomose with deep veins to form the venous plexus, and some of the superficial veins anastomose with others to form venous network. Normally, the superficial veins empty into the deep veins.
4.The special morphology of vein (1)Venous sinuses of dura mater The venous sinuses are special venous canals formed by dura mater within the skull. (2)Diploic veins They are venous blood vesseles embedded in sponge substance of the skull (3)Emissary veins. They are venous blood vesseles connecting the superficial vein of the face and head with the deep vein within the skull.
5.Below the level of middile portion of the humerous and the tibial tuberosity ,one artery has two accompanying veins.
B.The arrangement of the systemic vein
including 3 routes in total a.cardiac venous system the venous blood flow coronary sinus b.superior vena cava and its tributaries the venous blood flow of head and neck sup. vena cava right atrium
the venous blood flow of upper limb the venous blood flow of thorax azygos v. system c.inferior vena cava and its tributaries the venous blood flow of the lower half of the body inf. vena cava system
1.the veins of heart (already studied) 2.The sup. vena cava and its tributaries: (1)The veins of the head and neck
deep v internal jugular v sup vena cava brachiocephalic v.
(2)The veins of the upper limbs
deep v brachial v. basilic v Superficial v. cephalic v axillary v. subclavicular v.
brachiocephalic v. sup vena cava
(3)The veins of the thorax
right: azygos v. Deep v. left: hemiazygos and accessory azygos v. superficial v. thoracoepigastric v. axillary v. sup. vena cava
3.The inf. vena cava and its tributaries:
(2)The veins of abdominal wall:
deep v. sup. epigastric v. subclavicular v. sup. vena cava inf. epigastric v. external iliac v. common iliac v. inf. vena cava superficial v. superficial epigastric v. femoral v. ext. iliac v. (3) The veins of lower limbs: deep v. femoral v. external iliac v. superficial v. great saphenous v.
great saphenous v.
common iliac v. inf. vena cava popliteal v.
small saphenous v.
(4)The veins of pelvis: veins of pelvis internal iliac v. common iliac v. inf. vena cava C.The anastomoses between the sup. vena cava and inf. vena cava azygos and its tributaries 3 routes portal v. system veteral venous plexus: int. and ext. vertebral v. plexus
1.The azygos and its tributaries:
sup. vena caca accessory semiazygos v. collecting left upper int ercostal v, esophageal v.and bronchial v. azygos. v semiazygos v collecting: left lower int ercostal v., esophageal v. and bronchial v.;
anastom osing with left ascending lumbar v collecting: right intercostal v, esophageal v. and bronchial v, connecting with right ascending lumbar v
2.The hepatic portal v.: (1)The formation: splenic v. sup. mesenteric v. inf. mesenteric v. (2)The characteristics of the portal v a.There is no valve within the lumen b.It arises from cappillary blood vesseles and ends with cappillary blood vesseles c.The blood contains rich nutritions (3)The tributaries of it:
gastric v. right gastric v. paraumbilical v. sup. mesenteric v. inf. mesenteric v. splentic v. cystic v. D.Some of important superficial veins 1.The veins of head and neck
common facial v.
internal jugular v.
Superficial temporal v. Maxillary v.
Ant. br. of retromandibular v. post. br. of retromandibular v. Post. Auricular v. occipital v.
external jugular v. sup.vena cava (photo)
The communications between the v. within the skull and the out of the skull facial v. angular v. ophthalmic v. Cavernous sinus deep v. of face pterygoid v.plexus 2.The superficial v of the upper limbs: cephalic v. median cubital v. axillary v. or subclavian v. profound cubital v. basilic v.
3.The superficial v of the lower limbs: small saphenous v. popliteal v. femoral v superficial epigastric v. ext. pudendal v superficial iliac circumflex v. great saphenous v. sup. medial femoral v sup. lateral femoral v
(4)The channels for collateral circulation of the portal v.
Left gastric v. Sup.rectal v.
Esophagus venous plexus Rectal venous plexus
Tributaries of azygos
Internal iliac v.
Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
Paraumbilical v. Tributaries of sup. And Inf. Mesenteric v. Periumbilical venous plexus
Vertebral venous plexus Sup. Epigastic v and thoracoepigastic v Inf. Epigastric v. and superficial epigastic v.
Veterbral v. and lumbar v.
Sup. Vena cava
Inf. Vena cava
Inf. Vena cava
3.vertebral venous plexus the external vertebral venous plexus including the internal vertebral venous plexus Both the ext. and int. vertebral venous plexuses not only communicate each other, but also communicate with the intercostal v, lumbar v and the veins in the pelvis. They ary an important route to connect the sup.vena cava and inf. vena cava
A. Introduction 1.The functional and morphological characteristics of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a seperated system, acting as accessory system for the drainage of fluid from the tissue space. The produce of lymphatic fluid:
While the blood is passing through the blood capillaries, some of the fluid elements transude through the walls of the cap. into the tissue space and become the tissue fluid:
taken by blood cap. bloodlymphatic fluid taken by lymphatic cap.
2.The formation of lymphatic system: Including 3 parts:
lymphatic capillaries lymphatic vessel lymphatic truck lymphatic duct spleen thymus tonsils
(1)lymphatic vessels a.The lymphatic capillaries They commence with a dilated, bulb-like, blind end and form networks in tissue space. The space between the endothelium cells are larger. The large molecular substances easily pass through the wall of the lymphatic capillaries.
b.The lymphatic vessels There are no lymphatic vessel in central nervous system, cartilages, cornea, internal ear, lens of eye. etc. They are similar to the small vein and can be divided into deep and superficial groups.The vessels contain rich valves,the anastomoses between the lymphatic vessels is very rich. c.The lymphatic trunk: Many lymphatic vessels unite each other to form 9 lymphatic trund.They are as follows:
left jugular trunk
to drain the lymphatic fluid of the half of head and neck
right jugular trunk left subclavian trunk
to drain the lymphatic fluid of the upper limb and a part of the wall of thorax
right subclavian trunk left bronchomediastinal trunk
to drain the lymphatic fluid of thoracic organs and a right bronchomediastinal trunk part of the wall of the thorax left lumbar trunk to drain the lymphatic fluid of lower limb, pelvis, some of the abdominal organs and right lumbar trunk part of the wall of the abdomen Intestinal trunk to drain the lymphatic fluid of the abdominal organs
4.The lymphatic duct: (1)The right lymphatic duct is the union of the following lymphatic trunks
right subclavian trunks right jugular trunks
right bronchomediastinal trunks right lymphatic duct right venous angle
(2)The thoracic duct It is the union of the following trunks:
left lumbar trunk right lumbar trunk
the confluence of left and right trunks, a dilated part , is called cisterna chyli
intestinal trunk left jugular trunk left subclavian trunk left bronchomediastinal trunk the route of the thoracic duct passing though aortic hiatus
Ⅱ.The lymphatic nodes: 1.Functions: (1)immune function: generating primed B and T cells (2)adding antibodies to the circulation (3)filter particles in the lymphatic nodes 2.The rules of the distribution of lymphatic nodes (1)They can be divided into deep and superficial groups: (2)They are situated in the fossa of limbs, near to the hiatus of parenchymotous organs and along the blood vessels; (3)Each node has afferent and efferent vessels:
(4) According to the sequence of lymphatic fluid drainage in an organ or a region, the lymphatic nodes can be divides into regional node, intermediate nodes and terminal nodes. Regional node indicates the node which initially receives the lymphatic vessels from an organ or a region. a. Regional node may be one or more. b. Intermediate nodes are a group of nodes proximal to outlying node to receive the lymphatic fluid of an organ or a region.
c. Terminal nodes are “final station” to receive the lymphatic fluid of an organ or a region. The efferent vessel of the nodes unite to form lymphatic trunk. The concept of regional node is very important for clinic. If the cancer or infection of an organ transfers, the first affected node is regional node.It may be enlarged. 3.The groups of the lymphatic node in the body will be studied by students themselves.
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