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The cardiovascular

system
Organization
 Heart
 Artery (a.)
 Veins (v.)

 Capillary
Blood circulation
 Systemic circulation
 Pulmonary circulation
The Arteries

Guiqiong He

Department of Anatomy
Chongqing Medical University
Characteristics of the arteries
 The larger arteries usually occupy the most
protected situations, running, in the limbs, along
the flexor surface, where they are less exposed to
injury
 segmental and intersegmental in character. The
intersegmental character of the intercostal and
lumbar vessels is obvious.
 The intersegmental a.& v. are bilaterally
symmetrical vessels.
 The arteries in the trunk of the body consist of
parietal and visceral branches.
 Take the shortest possible course.
 Run together with v. and n. in a sheath of fascia to
form neurovascular bundle.
Vascular which means the arteries do not end in capillaries, but
communicate with one another to form the anastomoses.
anastomosis
 A-A type: Anastomosis between a.
 V-V type: Anastomosis between v.
 A-V type: Anastomosis between a.& v.
 Collateral vessels and collateral
circulation

Rectal venous plexus


I. Arteries of pulmonary
circulation
convey the deoxygenated blood from the RV to the lungs
Pulmonary trunk ← Conus arteriosus of RV

 Arises from right ventricle


 Runs up, back ,and to the left
 Bifurcates inferior to aortic arch
into right and left pulmonary
arteries, one for each lung
※arterial lig., lies between the root of the
left pulmonary a. and aortic arch, which is
the remnant of the ductus arteriosus in the
fetus
II. Arteries of systemic circulation
convey the oxygenated blood from LV to various tissues and organs of the
body.
Aorta: is the main trunk of the series of arteries, divided into 3 parts
 Ascending aorta
-coronary a.
 Aortic arch Aortic
Sternal angle arch
 Brachiocephalic trunk
 right common carotid a. Ascending
aorta
 right subclavian a.
Descending
 Left common carotid a. aorta
 Left subclavian a.
 Descending aorta
 Thoracic aorta
 Abdominal aorta
i. Arteries of head and neck
Blood supply comes mainly from the common carotid a. and
partly from the subclavian a.

 Common carotid a.
 External carotid a.
- sup. thyroid a.
- lingiual a.
- facial a.
- ascending pharyngeal a.
- occipital a.
- superficial temporal a.
- maxillary a. →middle meninges a.
 Internal carotid a.: enter the cranial
cavity to supply the brain. (※ without
giving off branches in the neck)
 Carotid sinus
It is a dilatation at the point of the
bifurcation of common carotid a.,
acting as a pressoreceptor, which
reacts to changes of the arterial
blood.

 Carotid glomus
It is a small, reddish-brown
structure behind the bifurcation of
the common carotid a., acting as a
chemoreceptor, which responds to
changes in the composition of the
blood, eg. O2/CO2
 Subclavian a.:
right subclavian a. arises from the
brachiocephalic trunk, while the left
one from the aortic arch.

-vertebral a. : enter the skull


through foramen magnum to supply
brain
-internal thoracic a.
◇ musculophrenic a.

◇ sup. epigastric a.
-thyrocervical trunk
◇ inf. thyroid a.
◇ suprascapular a.
◇ costocervical trunk
ii. Arteries of upper limb
Blood supply comes from the subclavian a.

-thoracoacromial a. Subclavian a.
-lateral thoracic a.
-subscapular a.
Axillary a.
-Ant.& post.
circumflex humeral a
Brachial a. Deep brachial
a.
Radial a. Ulnar a.
radial
Ulnar
Superficial deep palmar a.
a.
palmar branch branch
Deep palmar arch
Sup. palmar arch
Superficial palmar arch deep palmar arch
iii. Arteries of thorax
Blood supply comes from the thoracic aorta.

 Parietal branches
 posterior intercostals a.(9 pairs)
 subcostal a. (1 pair)

 Visceral branches
 Bronchial a.
 Esophageal a.
 Pericardial a.
iV. Arteries of abdomen
Blood supply comes from the abdominal aorta.

 Parietal branches
 Inf. prenic a.(1 pair)
 Lumbar a.(4 pairs)
 Visceral branches
 Paired branches
-Middle suprarenal artery
-Renal artery
-Testicular (ovarian) artery
 Visceral branches
cystic a.
 Unpaired branches
left gastric a. right gastric a.

proper right branch


common hepatic a.
-Celiac trunk hepatic a. Left branch
Gastro- right gastroomental
duodenal a. a.
left gastroomental a.

splenic a. short gastric a.


pancreatic a.

jejunal and ileal a.


-Superior mesenteric a.
ileocolic a. appendicular a.
right and middle colic a.

left colic a. and sigmoid a.


-Inferior mesenteric a.
Superior rectal a.
Left gastric a.

inferior mesenteric a.
splenic a.

Superior
mesenteric a.
Common hepatic a.
V. Arteries of pelvis
Blood supply comes from common iliac a., it divides into internal &
external iliac a.

 Internal iliac a.
-parietal branch
◇ sup. & inf. gluteal a.
◇ obturator a.
- Visceral branch
◇ inf. rectal a.
◇ uterine a./ testicular a.
◇ internal pudendal a.
 External iliac a.
Vi. Arteries of lower limb
Blood supply comes from external iliac a.

External iliac a. lateral femoral


circuflex a.

Femoral deep femoral a. medial femoral


circuflex a.
a.
perforating a.

peroneal a.

Posterior tibial a. med. plantar a.


Popliteal
lat. plantar a.
a.

Anterior tibial a. dorsal a. of foot


Questions
 The arterial blood supply of brain comes from _________and
_______ artery

 The largest branch of aortic arch is __________.

 Superior rectal a. arises from____________, appendicular a.


arises from ____________, left gastric a. arises from______.

 When the drug was injected into the vein in the back of hand,
finally it was discharged from the urine. Describe the pathway
of the drug in the body.

 True or False
All of the arteries contain oxygen-rich blood, while all of the
veins contain oxygen-poor blood.