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Melatonin is important in the regulation of day-night cycles, with secondary effects on reproductive function. habenula
Intermediate adhesion ： a medial projection of gray matter , extends into the ventricle fro the thalamus on either side; 70% the two fuse in the midline.
Intermediat e adhesion
Cerebellum & Diencephalon
Department of Anatomy Chongqing Medical University
It is involved in equilibrium, in muscle tone and postural control, and in the coordination of voluntary movements. It covers most of post. surface of the brainstem , anchored there by three pairs of fiber bundles called cerebellar peduncles. Superior cerebellar peduncle
Inferior cerebellar peduncle
Middle cerebellar peduncle
Divided in transversely
cerebell Posteriolateral fissure um
Flocculonodular lobe Body of cerebellum
Ant. lobe Post. lobe
Divided in functionally
Vermis Intermediate Hemisphere
Tonsils are two elevated massed on the inf. surface. It’s close to the magnum foramen and can be developed into tonsillar herniation
Flocculonodular lobe Ant. lobe Post. lobe
vestibulocerebellum ; archicerebellum paleocerebellum; spinocerebellum neocerebellum pontocerebellum
To maintain the equilibrium To influence muscle tone and synergy of muscle during stereotyped movement To ensure the coordination of muscles fro accuracy of nonstereotyped movement
matter ( cortex) share common organization White matter (medullary center) deep nuclei; cerebellar peduncles
*arbor vitae The arbor vitae (Latin for " Tree of Life") is the cerebellar white matter, so called for its branched, tree-like appearance. It brings sensory and motor information to and from the cerebellum.
Deep cerebellar nuclei
nucleus emboliform / globose nucleus: interposed nucleus fastigial nucleus
Globose and emboliform nuclei
Inf. cerebellar peduncle ( restiform body) Mid. cerebellar peduncle ( brachium pontis) Sup. cerebellar peduncle (brachium conjunctivum)
Mainly of afferents ; From the spinal cord and brainstem Largest of the three; Exclusively of afferents; From the pontine nuclei Major efferents; To the red nucleus and thalamus
It’s mostly hidden from view between the cerebral hemispheres. It has extremely widespread and important connections, and the great majority of sensory, motor, and limbic pathways involve one of more relays in the diencephalons.
It lies between the brainstem and cerebrum and can be divided into:
Epithalamus ----- pineal gland and habenular nuclei Subthalamus ----- subthalamic nucleus Metathalamus ----- medial and lateral geniculate bodies (put them in the dorsal thalamus to study Dorsal thalamus ----- also called thalamus Hypothalamus
It is a large, egg-shaped nuclear mass which makes up about 80% of the diencephalons. The thalamic nuclei provides relay centers for both sensory and motor pathways. Between the 2 thalami , it is the 3rd ventricle. Intermediate adhesion
Thalamic nuclei can be distinguished from each other both by their topographical locations within the thalamus and by the patterns of their inputs and outputs.
Subdivisi Ant on group Medial group Lateral group Nuclei anterior Dorsomedial (DM) Dorsal tier Lateral dorsal ( Lateral post. ( LP) LD) Pulvinar Ventral tier Ventral ant. (VA) Ventral lat. (VL) Ventral posterolateral (VPL) Ventral posteromedial(VPM ) Medial geniculate ( MGN) geniculate Lateral ( LGN) Basal ganglia; cerebellum Medial lemnisus (body) ; spinothalamic tract (body) lemnisus Medial (face) ; spinothalamic tract (face) Brachium of the inf. colliculus Optic tract Motor areas Somatosenso ry cortex Somatosenso ry cortex Auditory cortex cortex Visual Specific inputs Cortical output
The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem . This brain region occupies the major portion of the ventral diencephalon. It is found in all mammalian brains. In humans, it is roughly the size of an almond. The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the Autonomic Nervous System. It synthesizes and secretes neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and circadian cycles.
Suggested website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothalamus#cite_note-0
Some of the formation are: Optic chiasma Optic tract Tube cinereum Infundibulum Mamillary body
Some of the nuclei are: Paraventricular nucleus Supraoptic nucleus Suprachiasma nucleus Mamillary nucleus