n jw
e n x
0
] [ = Periodic signal with fundamental frequency w
0
] [ ] [
0 0 0
2 ) 2 (
1
n x e e e e n x
n jw n jw n j n w j
= = = =
H H +
Signal with fundamental frequency w
0
is identical to signal with
fundamental frequency w
0
+2
Frequency ....... 6 , 4 , 2
0 0 0 0
H H H = w w w w
Plot of X[n]=cos(nw)
W=5
W=5+2
W=5+4 W=5+6
Periodicity in time
n jw
e n x
0
] [ =
This is periodic with time period N=
N jw n jw N n jw n jw
e e e e n x
0 0 0 0
) (
] [ = = =
+
2
w
ly, equivalent or
integer m where 2 w , requires this
1 periodic be to for this
0
0
0
N
m
ve m N
e
N jw
=
H
+ = H =
=
Rational
number
H 2
w
0
x[n]= cos (2n/12)
rational
w
N w
,
12
1
2
12 ,
12
2
0
0
=
= =
t
t
x[n]= cos (n/6)
] [ ] [
] [
2w with periodic ] [ 2 k for
with w periodic ] [ 1 k for
......... 2 , 1 , 0 k for ] [ onsider
N. period and frequency l Fundamenta with periodic :
k N k
2
2
) (
N k
0
2
2
0 1
k
0
0
0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
n e n
e e e e e e e n
e n
e n
e n c
w e
n jkw
n j n jkw
n
N
jN
n jkw n jNw n jkw n w N k j
n w j
n jw
n jkw
n jw
 




= =
= = = =
= =
= =
= =
+
H
H
+
+
> =<
=
= = =
= = =
= = =
= =
= =
= =
=
=
=
=
= =
= =
= =
+
+
N k so , signal
unique N only has ] [ : conclusion
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
] [ ] [ ] [
] [ ] [ ] [
] [ ] [ ] [
] [ ] [
] [ ] [
] [ ] [
] [ ] [
......... 2 , 1 , 0 k and 3 N consider
] [ ] [
......... 2 , 1 , 0 k for ] [
N. period and frequency l Fundamenta with periodic :
0
0
0
0
k
2 5 8 11
1 4 7 10
0 3 6 9
2 5 8
1 4 7
0 3 6
2 5
1 4
0 3
k 3 k
k N k
k
0
n jkw
n jkw
n jkw
n jw
e n
n n n n
n n n n
n n n n
n n n
n n n
n n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
n e n
e n
w e

   
   
   
  
  
  
 
 
 
 
 

For N=3 , only 3 distinct signals are defined
In general only N values of K exist
8
Fourier series of discrete time signal
ts. coefficien series Fourier the are s ' a
lues. integer va N any of
ns combinatio any on can take summation the where
a a ] [ a x[n]
 : by given is Series Fourier time  Discrete for Notation
1.  .N 0,1,2,.... k where
a a ] [ a x[n]
k
) / 2 (
) (
k
) (
k k
(N) k
k
) / 2 (
k k k
k
k
0
0
n N jk
N k
n jkw
N k
n N jk
k
n jkw
k
e e n
e e n
t
t


= = =
= = =
=
= = =
9
0 r  k or
know, we
a x[n]
summation, of order ing interchang
a x[n]
also
...... 2 , , 0
0
also,
a a x[n]
) (
) / 2 )( (
) (
) / 2 )( (
) (
k
) / 2 (
) (
) (
) / 2 )( (
) (
k
) / 2 (
) (
) (
) / 2 (
) / 2 (
) (
k
) (
k
0
= =
=
=
=
=
= =
=
=
=
=
= =
f N e
e e
e e
N N k
otherwise
f or N
e
e e
N n
n N r k j
N k
n N r k j
N n
n N jr
N n
N n
n N r k j
N k
n N jr
N n
N n
n N jk
n N jk
N k
n jkw
N k
t
t t
t t
t
t
equation Analysis x[n]
1
equation synthesis a a x[n]
NOW,
x[n]
1
x[n]
, r k for
) / 2 (
) (
) / 2 (
) (
k
) (
k
) / 2 (
) (
) (
) / 2 ( 0 ) / 2 (
) (
0
n N jK
N n
K
n N jk
N k
n jkw
N k
n N jr
N n
r
r
N n
n N j
r
n N jr
N n
e
N
a
e e
e
N
a
N a e a e
t
t
t
t t
=
= =
=
=
=
= =
=
= =
=
a
k
=a
k+N
11
. 2 / 1 a and 2 / 1 a thus N h repeat wit
,
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
x[n]
sin x[n] signal he Consider t
3.10 Example
1  N 1 N
1 1
) / 2 ( ) / 2 (
0
0 0
j j ts Coef f icien
j
a and
j
a equation synthesis From
e
j
e
j
e
j
e
j
n
n j n j n N j n N j
= =
= =
= =
=
+
e e t t
e
1/2j
1/2j
k
a
k
0
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
. 2 / 1 a and 2 / 1 a thus N h repeat wit
,
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
x[n]
)
5
2
sin( sin x[n] signal he Consider t
3.10 Example
1  N 1 N
1 1
) 5 / 2 ( ) 5 / 2 (
0
j j ts Coef f icien
j
a and
j
a equation synthesis From
e
j
e
j
n n
n j n j
= =
= =
=
= =
+
t t
t
e
13
. )
2
1
( )
2
1
(
)
2
1
2
3
( )
2
1
2
3
( 1 x[n]
 : terms Collecting
]. [
2
1
] [
2
3
] [
2
1
1 x[n]
ls, exponentia complex as signal the
expanding and ip relationsh eigen the Using
N. period l fundamenta with periodic is x[n] , / 2 when
) 2 / 2 cos( cos 3 sin 1 x[n] signal he Consider t
3.11 Example
) / 2 ( 2 2 / ) / 2 ( 2 2 /
) / 2 ( ) / 2 (
) 2 / / 4 ( ) 2 / / 4 (
) / 2 ( ) / 2 ( ) / 2 ( ) / 2 (
0
0 0 0
n N j j n N j j
n N j n N j
N n j N n j
n N j n N j n N j n N j
e e e e
e
j
e
j
e e
e e e e
j
N
n n n
t t t t
t t
t t t t
t t t t
t e
t e e e
+ +
+ +
+ + + =
+ +
+ + + =
=
+ + + + =
14
j a a j a a
j
a
j
a a ts Coef f icien
a with
j a
j a
j
a
j
a
a
e e e e
e
j
e
j
N N
k
n N j j n N j j
n N j n N j
2
1
,
2
1
),
2
1
2
3
( a
),
2
1
2
3
( a and , 1 a thus N h repeat wit
k. of se other valu for 0
,
2
1
,
2
1
)
2
1
2
3
(
)
2
1
2
3
(
, 1
. )
2
1
( )
2
1
(
)
2
1
2
3
( )
2
1
2
3
( 1 x[n]
2 2 2 2 1 1 N
1 1  N 0 N
2
2
1
1
0
) / 2 ( 2 2 / ) / 2 ( 2 2 /
) / 2 ( ) / 2 (
= = = = + = =
= = = =
=
=
=
=
+ =
=
+ +
+ + + =
+ +
t t t t
t t
15
0
N
N
0
N
N
Re(a
k
)
Im (a
k
)
1
3/2
1/2
k
k
Example 3.11
N=10
16
0
N
N
0
N
N
(a
k
)
phase(a
k
)
1
t/2
k
k
2 / 10
1/2
t/2
Example 3.11
17
0
N
N
n
Example 3.12
1
N
1
N
1
=
=
=
=
+ =
1
1
1
1
2
0
) / 2 ( ) / 2 (
2
0
) )( / 2 (
1
.
1
.
1
. N n m
N
m
m N jk N N jk
k
N
m
N m N jk
k
e e
N
a
e
N
a
Let
t t
t
=
=
=
1
1
) / 2 (
k
1
a
 : equation analysis From
N n
N n
n N jk
e
N
t
Discrete time
square wave
18
0
N N

n
Example 3.12
1
N
1
N
1
2N,.... N, 0, k ,
1 2
,... 2 , N 0, k ,
) / sin(
] / ) 2 / 1 ( 2 sin[ 1
1
1
=
+
=
=
+
=
N
N
a
and
N
N k
N N k
N
a
k
k
t
t
=
=
=
1
1
) / 2 (
k
1
a
 : equation analysis From
N n
N n
n N jk
e
N
t
19

Example 3.12
20,.... , 10 0, k , 2 / 1
10
1 2 * 2
,... 20 , 10 0, k ,
) 10 / sin(
] 10 / ) 2 / 1 2 ( 2 sin[
10
1
= =
+
=
=
+
=
k
k
a
and
k
k
a
t
t
0
4
7
1
1
2
3
5 6
8
9
10
Case N=10, 2N
1
+1=5.
1/2 1/2
20

Example 3.12
0,.... 4 , 20 0, k , 4 / 1
20
1 2 * 2
,... 40 , 20 0, k ,
) 20 / sin(
] 20 / ) 2 / 1 2 ( 2 sin[
20
1
= =
+
=
=
+
=
k
k
a
and
k
k
a
t
t
0 4
7
1
1
2 3
5
6
8
20
Case N=20, 2N
1
+1=5.
1/4 1/4
2
9 10
11
12
19
21

Example 3.12
0,.... 8 , 40 0, k , 8 / 1
40
1 2 * 2
,... 80 , 40 0, k ,
) 40 / sin(
] 40 / ) 2 / 1 2 ( 2 sin[
40
1
= =
+
=
=
+
=
k
k
a
and
k
k
a
t
t
0
4
7
1
1 2 3 5 6
8
40
Case N=40, 2N
1
+1=5.
1/8 1/8
2
9
22
, a x[n] e
shifting y 3.frequenc
a ] n  [n x
, a n] x[
shifting 2.time
By[n[ Ax[n]
, b y[n]
a x[n]
 : Linearity (1)
N with periodic also are b and a then
2
w
frequency l fundamenta and N period with periodic are y[n] and x[n]
DTFS of Properties
M  k
/N)n j M(2
k 0
k
k
k
k k 0
0 0
+ +
=
H
n jk
k k
e
Bb Aa
N
e
t
23
> =<
> =<
N l
l k l
k k
N r
b a n y n x
b Na r n y r x
] [ ] [
tion Multiplica 6.
] [ ] [ y[n] * x[n]
ion 5.Convolut
a [n] x
reversal 4.time
k 
odd and imaginary are FSC then odd and real is x[n] if
even and real a even and real x[n] if
,
}, {a Im } {a I
}, Re{a } Re{a , a
 : symmetry conjugate be will ts coefficien series Fourier
real, is x[n]
] [
, a x[n[
symmetry conjugate and e 7.conjugat
k
k  k
k  k
*
k
* *
k
=
Z = Z =
=
= =
k k k k
k
k
a a a a
m
a
The
If
a n x then
25
 : Relation s Parseval'
> =< > =<
=
N k
k
N n
a n x
N
.   .  ] [ 
1
2 2
Average power in one period
2
k
a
Average power in k
th
harmonic component is
Parsevals relation :Total average power in a periodic signal equals sum
of average powers in all of its harmonic components
=
+
= s s
2
1
2
1 2
2 1
] [
1
1
n interval over signal of power average
n
n n
n x
n n
n n
number rational N K m
K m
K m
m
= = = =
+ + + = + + + = +
+ + + =
+ = + = + =
+ = + = + =
+ =
m
k
N
N
2 1
2 2 1 1 2 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
1
N N have must we thus,
] N [n x ] N [n x N] [n x N] [n x N] x[n
, N period with periodic be for x[n]to
] N [n x ] N [n x x[n]
integer ve k , ] N [n x ] N [n x [n] x
integer ve m , ] N [n x ] N [n x [n] x
: solution
periodic? is it if x[n] of period l fundamenta
the is what and periodic, [n] x [n] x [n] x sum the is
conditions hat ly.Under w respective , N and , N periods
l fundamenta with signals periodic [n]be x and [n] Let x
24
4 4 3 3
12
3
12
3
12
4
12
4
12
3
12
3
12
4
12
4
4 / 4 / 3 / 3 /
0
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
,
2
,
2
,
2 2 2
1
2
1
] [
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
] [
] [
2
1
] [
2
1
4
n
sin
3
n
cos x[n]
formula, euler using
12
w and 24 N of period has ] [
8 N period with periodic is
4
n
sin
6 N period with periodic is
3
n
cos
4
n
sin
3
n
cos x[n] of FS find
+
=
= = = =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + = + =
= =
=
=
+ =
k k
n j n j n j n j
n j n j n j n j
n j n j n j n j
a a
a a
j
a
j
a thus
e
j
e
j
e e n x
e
j
e
j
e e n x
e e
j
e e
n x
t t t t
t t t t
t t t t
t t
t
t
t
t t