– In 1883, in Indonesia, a volcano called Krakatoa erupted at first.

The life of a volcano
The inside of the earth is very hot, and some of the solid rock melts to form a liquid rock called magma.

When magma leaves the vent, it becomes lava.


Plate tectonics
• Plate tectonics theory explains how volcanoes form. Some volcanoes form above a hot spot, which is a very hot place in the mantle.

A volcanic eruption
• Contents: gas, dust, water vapour, lava and ash. • Scientists put volcanoes into three groups: • Active volcano is one that is erupting or will soon erupt • Dormant volcano is one has not erupted for a long time • Extinct volcano is one has not erupted for more than 10.000 years

Volcanic landforms
• Are in many places in the world in many different shapes and sizes. • Types of volcanoes: fissure volcano, shield volcano, dome volcano, ash-cinder volcano, composite volcano, caldera volcano.

Rocks and lava
• Magma forms igneous rocks. This fragments are called thepra. Types of thepra: bomb, lapilli, ash and dust. • Liquid lava flows fast. This is called pahoehoe. • When slow, sticky lava gets hard, it forms rocks whith sharp edges is called AA. • Sometimes lava forms long, thin strings like human hair it’s called pele’s hair.

Underwater volcanoes
The floor of the ocean is similar to dry land. There are more volcanoes under the ocean than on land.

Living with volcanoes
The minerals and chemicals in the lava and ash make soil fertile so it’s good for farming.

Volcanoes also help to produce electricity they heat rocks that are near the earth’s crust.

When these rocks heat underwater, it turns to steam. This is called geothermal energy.

Special scientists are called volcanologists. They study volcanoes in different ways. This helps to learn about the volcanoes history and to know what it is going to do.

Because of this, people who live near volcanoes can plan what to do. • Volcanologists wear special suits while they collect lava.

By Pau GRAU and Guillem ROCA

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