EMPLOYEE RELATIONS

Session 1
12/03/2013

Introduction
• Among the most fundamental aspects of employee relations are job design and related position descriptions. Well designed jobs provide employee satisfaction and optimise productivity. Jobs need to be designed with the understanding that:      they are required by the organisation; they have relevance and meaning; they provide opportunities for professional growth; they reflect good management practices; they reflect a positive attitude towards employees through an adequately resourced working environment; and  they provide job satisfaction and remuneration

4/4/2013

Ms soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi

2

TRADE UNION
• A group of workers joined together to protect their own interests and to be more powerful when negotiating with their employers.

4/4/2013

Ms soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi

3

HISTORY OF TRADE UNIONS

4/4/2013

Ms soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi

4

4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 5 . Faculty.

Faculty. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 6 .4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.

Faculty.AIMS OF TRADE UNIONS • • • • To improve the pay. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 7 . To improve working conditions To support training and development To ensure that their members interests are considered during decision making.

Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 8 . • Industrial Unions: different workers in the same industry. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. • White collar Unions: professionals who perform the same or similar tasks in different industries. Faculty. performing the same or similar work in different industries. • Craft Unions: small unions for skilled workers.TYPES OF TRADE UNIONS • General Union: skilled and unskilled workers performing different jobs in different industries.

Pay Bargaining • Negotiating with the employers of a business on behalf of their members over issues of pay. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 9 . 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. It is an example of collective bargaining. Faculty.

List of employer associations • Confederation of British Industry • Federation of Small Businesses • Institute of Directors. Faculty. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 10 .

• TUC policy is made at its annual Congress. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 11 .5 million members. There are fifty-eight affiliated unions with a total of about 6. with the number of delegates they can send proportionate to their size.Trade Union Congress • The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a national trade union centre. which meets for four days each year during September. representing the majority of trade unions. a federation of trade unions in the United Kingdom. Faculty. • Affiliated unions can send delegates to Congress. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.

Faculty. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 12 .Theoretical perspectives • Pluralist • Unitarist • Radical ( Marxist ) 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.

UNIT 2 – Session 2 13/03/2013 .

CONFLICT AND DISPUTE • Conflict: (a) A state of open. often prolonged fighting. resulting from the opposition or simultaneous functioning of mutually exclusive impulses. (d) Opposition between characters or forces in a work of drama or fiction. (2)To question the truth or validity of. especially opposition that motivates or shapes the action of the plot. it is a psychic struggle. (b) A state of disharmony between incompatible or antithetical persons. often unconscious. debate. Faculty. or tendencies. ideas. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 14 . (c) In Psychology. Dispute: (1) To argue about. (4) To strive against. or interests. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. resist: disputed the actions of his competitors. (3) To strive to win (a prize. for example). desires. doubt: Her friends disputed her intentions. a battle or war. contest for: Our team disputed the visitors' claim to the championship. a clash.

actions or principles between two or more staff members. or between staff members and the Organization.” 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Faculty. needs. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 15 .What is conflict ? • “Any opposition or difference of wishes. arguments. statements.

Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 16 . low morale/productivity.• Deal with conflicts and grievances in a timely manner • Costs of conflicts :  Direct costs for handling formal cases  Hidden costs of conflicts ( wasted time. loss of skilled staff. Faculty. health costs) 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.

Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi . Formal • Administrative review • Joint Appeals Board • Specialized resource procedures • Administrative Tribunal 17 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. etc. Human Resource officers. Executive Office. friends. Faculty.Formal and informal channels Informal • Ombudsman • Self-help/help of colleagues. supervisors.

Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 18 .………………… • • • • • • Informal Early resolution Proactive/Preventive Win-win solution Before conflict escalation No administrative decisions are required No record keeping • • • • • Formal Time consuming Reactive Judgments/decisions Win-lose solution After conflict occurrence • Administrative decisions required • Record keeping 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Faculty.

informal mediation.The role of the Ombudsman • As a facilitator of conflict resolution: – by providing advice on resources available. Faculty. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 19 . etc. referral. • As an agent for change (systemic issues): – by making recommendations for change on policies and procedures 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. informal fact finding.

private and confidential – Quick and inexpensive – Informal and unstructured – No third party is involved – Negotiated agreements can be enforceable – Can result in a win-win solution 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION • Negotiation – Back and forth communication between parties. Faculty. – It is voluntary. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 20 .

– Can go in for joint or separate caucusing.If negotiation is unsuccessful. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 21 . – The mediator is a facilitator and do not make decisions or force agreements (agreements can be creative in nature). Faculty. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. then………… • Mediation – A voluntary process in which an impartial person helps in communication and promotes reconciliation. – They can give suggestions. – Mediations are held in the office of the mediator or other agreed locations.

…………… • Mediated agreement can become a contract and be enforceable. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 22 . • Can result in a win-win solution 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Faculty.

Faculty. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 23 . Unlike trials appeal rights are limited. listen to the situation and make the decision. – Like a trial only one side will prevail. – There can me one or more than one arbitrator (mostly 3). – The arbitrator will control the process . 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. – It is an out of court method for resolving disputes.• Arbitration – Submission of a disputed matter to an impartial person for decision.

a decision can become final if all parties agree to accept it or it may serve to help you evaluate the case and start a settlement talk. Faculty. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.……………… – The results can be binding if all parties have previously agreed to be bound by the decision. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 24 . – In non-binding arbitration. – You will usually be represented by an attorney during arbitration. In that case an arbitrators awards can be reduced to judgment in a court and thus be enforceable.

CONFLICT RESOLUTION Session 3 Date : 02 April 2013 .

Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 26 .Steps for Conflict resolution • • • • • • What are the signs of conflict? Who is in conflict? What is causing conflict? How do you manage conflict? Do you need help? How can you prevent conflict in future? 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Faculty.

Faculty. Try to subdue the conflict • Flight: turn your back on what is going on. By ignoring the problem you hope it will go away. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. You might begin to deal with the issue but things drift or become drawn out through indecision. • Freeze : not knowing how to react you become passive. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 27 .General response to conflict • Fight : shouting or loosing your temper.

• Productivity falls.there will be more queries and complaints due to lack of cooperation. Faculty. • A meeting turns into a stand off.What are the signs of conflict? • Witness a heated exchange. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 28 . • Responses to staff attitude or surveys indicate underlying dissatisfaction 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.people make derogatory remarks.fewer people volunteer to take up new tasks and there is little employee input at team meetings and briefings. • Sickness absence increase – unhappiness leads to depression or stress. • Behaviour changes. • Motivation drops.

Faculty.Who is in conflict? • Conflict between individuals involving: – Colleagues – Employees and their managers. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 29 . • Conflict between groups involving: – Teams – Large group of employees and the management 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.

• An employee and their manager – Your management style is too authoritarian – You favor other colleagues when assigning tasks.Conflict between individuals. Faculty.reasons • Colleagues – Clash of personalities – Strong difference of opinion over work – An overspill from personal issues outside work. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 30 .

– Disagreement over a teams goals or shared values. – Resentment that one team is not pulling its weight.reasons • Teams – Rivalry between colleagues. Faculty.Conflict between groups. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 31 .

Faculty.a general resentment towards senior management. . redundancies. rates of pay.Poor moral and low level of motivation. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. lack of proper consultation. .• Groups of employees and management ( it is often created by the classic ‘ us and them’ mentality) .It can be focused on specific issues like health and safety. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 32 .

What is causing conflict? • • • • • • • • Poor management Unfair treatment Unclear job roles inadequate training Poor communication Poor work environment Lack of equal opportunities Bullying and harassment Ms soorya Soman. Faculty. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 33 4/4/2013 .

• Increase in work load. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 4/4/2013 34 . Faculty. Ms soorya Soman. • Ignoring common values ( ignoring natural justice) • Unresolved problems from the past.Conflict can also be sparked off by: • The personalities involved ( personality mix can be affected when a new member joins) • Our changing needs and expectations.

– How to manage the conflict.How to manage a conflict? • Develop a strategy: – How to prevent the conflict. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. – When a dispute may be referred to higher authority. Faculty. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 35 . – When and how to seek outside help like mediation and conciliation.

giving them time and space to express their feelings and concerns often help to clear the air. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 36 .Managing conflict between individuals • Have quite word – talking and listening to employees.take the time to gather relevant information about those involved. • Consider getting a third part help like mediation 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Faculty. • Use the internal procedures if the conflict has moved to a more formal stage. • Investigate informally. • Upgrade your soft skills since a manager needs a great deal of sensitivity and empathy.

Faculty. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 37 . – Use dispute resolution procedures. – Ensure that the communication is timely relevant and concise. – Use problem solving cycle. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. – Promote joint decision making. – Check whether consulting with employees is legally approved.Managing conflict between groups • Improve the way you communicate and consult with employees.

Where employers negotiate terms and conditions of employment with trade union representatives. Faculty. – Collective bargaining. – Permanent consultative groups.• Form representative structures like – working groups to deal with specific issues like absence level. work patterns etc. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 38 .

Analyze solutions 4. Faculty. Collect data 6. 1. 2 Analyze the problem 3. Search for solutions 39 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Create action plan.Name the problem & set goals. 8. Evaluate the plan PROBLEM SOLVED 7. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi .• Use problem solving cycles. Analyze the data 5.

• Consider outside help.• Use dispute resolution procedures. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 40 . • What is the difference between MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION? 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Faculty.

– Establish formal procedures – Explain plans – Listen – Reward fairly – Work safely 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.How to prevent future conflicts? • Put the system and procedures in place. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 41 . Faculty.

Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 42 . 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. – Value employees – Treat Fairly – Encourage initiatives – Balance personal and business needs. – Build trust between employees representatives and management.• Develop relationships. – Develop new skills • Work together. Faculty.

Faculty.COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND NEGOTIATION Session 4 03 April 2013 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 43 .

Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 44 . Faculty.Collective bargaining • It is an industrial relations mechanism or tools and is an aspect of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at reaching agreements that regulate working conditions. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.

Faculty. The negotiation team should consist of representatives of both the parties with adequate knowledge and skills for negotiation. • Discuss: Here. the parties decide the ground rules that will guide the negotiations.The collective bargaining process comprises of five core steps • Prepare: This phase involves composition of a negotiation team. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 45 . 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman.

This stage comprises the time when ‘what ifs’ and ‘supposals’ are set forth and the drafting of agreements take place. • Bargain: negotiations are easy if a problem solving attitude is adopted. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 46 .• Propose: This phase involves the initial opening statements and the possible options that exist to resolve them. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Faculty.

THANK YOU 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. Faculty. Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 47 .

Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 48 . This stage is described as consisting of effective joint implementation of the agreement through shared visions. a consensual agreement is reached upon wherein both the parties agree to a common decision regarding the problem or the issue. 4/4/2013 Ms soorya Soman. strategic planning and negotiated change. Faculty.• Settlement: Once the parties are through with the bargaining process.

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