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Led is going to revolutionize the lighting technology within the

next few years

Led lamp is the fourth and latest generation of light sources Incandescent bulbs Fluorescent bulbs High intensity discharge(HID) lamps

The white LED lamp is equivalent to 60 watt incandescent bulb

in size and brightness but lasts 25 times longer and runs on less than 10 watts

LED Basics

The Electroluminescence effect

The LED is a semiconductor diode that emits light when current passes through it The n-side is heavily doped When forward biased, the built-in potential at the junction is reduced The e- from n-side get injected into p-side e- combine with the holes resulting in emission of photons i.e. light This effect is called electroluminescence


The white LED

Generation methods of white light

RGB synthesis
Using Blue LED with phosphor coating

Other methods include growing zinc selenide (ZnSe) on a

ZnSe substrate which simultaneously emitted blue light from diode and yellow light from substrate

Electrical compatibility

LEDs run on dc voltage To run from mains, miniaturized circuitry that converts AC to DC is provided between supply and device Thermal management Heat sinks Fans for cooling Graphite foam

Basic parameters
Efficacy Input power Colour rendering index (CRI) Correlated colour temperature Life time in hours

80-160 lm/watt 2-100 watts 65-97 2700-8000 k 50,000 hours

Small in size High photoelectric conversion efficiency

Ideal for cycling in lights

Longer life time compared to other light sources Do not contain toxic materials such as mercury Can be designed to emit light of intended colour Radiate very little heat Can be dimmed Robust

Exceeds the safety limits of blue-light hazard Temperature dependent

Causes more light pollution than other light sources

Voltage sensitive High initial prices Under cool-white LED illumination, the colour of the objects is perceived differently


Street and outdoor lighting Architectural lightning Down lights Freezer case lighting Retail display lighting Horticulture lighting Portable lighting

Driving 21st centurys lights by Bernie weir ,

Spectrum, IEEE Volume: 49, Issue: 3 Led basics-- Electrical compatibility- Thermal management- les/advances-in-led-thermal-management.html