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Biology and the Tree of Life

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE
FOURTH EDITION

SCOTT FREEMAN
Lectures by Stephanie Scher Pandolfi
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Key Concepts
All living organisms share five fundamental characteristics energy utilization, cellularity, information processing, replication, and evolution.
The cell theory states that all organisms are comprised of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells. The theory of evolution by natural selection describes how species change through time.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Key Concepts
A phylogenetic tree is a graphical representation of the evolutionary relationships among species. Phylogenies can be established by analyzing similarities and differences in traits.
Biologists ask questions, generate hypotheses to answer them, and design experiments that test the predictions made by competing hypotheses.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

What Does It Mean to Say That Something Is Alive?


All living organisms share five fundamental characteristics
Energy All organisms acquire and use energy. Cells All organisms are made up of membrane-bound cells. Information All organisms process hereditary information encoded in genes as well as information from the environment. Replication All organisms are capable of reproduction.

Evolution Populations of organisms are continually evolving.


2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Theories
A theory is an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations.
Theories have two components. Pattern Something that occurs in the natural world Process Responsible for creating the pattern Two theories form the framework for modern biological science. The cell theory The theory of evolution by natural selection

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Cell Theory


In the late 1660s, Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek were the first to observe cells.
A cell is a highly organized compartment bounded by a plasma membrane that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution. The cell theory states that All organisms are made of cells (pattern). All cells come from preexisting cells (process).

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Louis Pasteurs Experiment


A hypothesis is a proposed explanation.
A prediction is something that can be measured and must be correct if a hypothesis is valid. Louis Pasteur proved that cells arise from cells and not by spontaneous generation.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Implications of the Cell Theory


Because all cells come from preexisting cells, all individuals in a population of single-celled organisms are related by common ancestry.
All of the cells present in a multicellular organism have descended from preexisting cells and are connected by common ancestry.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection


In 1858, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace made two claims regarding the natural world:
All species are related by common ancestry (pattern). Characteristics of species can be modified from generation to generation. Descent with modification (process)

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Evolution and Natural Selection


Evolution is a change in the characteristics of a population over time. It means that species are related to one another and can change through time.
Natural selection explains how evolution occurs.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Natural Selection and Populations


A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time constitute a population.
Two conditions must be met for natural selection to occur in a population: 1. Individuals in the population vary in characteristics that are heritable. 2. In a particular environment, certain versions of these heritable traits help individuals survive better or reproduce more than do other versions.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Evolutionary Change
If certain heritable traits lead to increased success in producing offspring, these traits become more common in the population over time. In this way, the populations characteristics change as a result of natural selection acting on individuals.
Natural selection acts on individuals, but evolutionary change occurs in populations.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Artificial Selection
In artificial selection, changes in populations occur when humans select which individuals will produce the most offspring. Repeating this process over generations results in changes in the characteristics of a domesticated population over time.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Artificial Selection

Web Activity: Artificial Selection

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Differential Reproductive Success


Evolution occurs when heritable variation leads to differential success in reproduction.
This can occur via: Artificial selection humans select desirable traits within a domestic population Natural selection traits beneficial to the current environment are selected within a natural population

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Fitness and Adaptation


Fitness is the ability of an individual to produce offspring. Individuals with high fitness produce many surviving offspring.
Adaptation is a trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Tree of Life


The cell theory and the theory of evolution by natural selection imply that all species come from preexisting species and that all species, past and present, trace their ancestry back to a single common ancestor.
Speciation is a divergence process in which natural selection has caused populations of one species to diverge to form new species.

The tree of life is a family tree of organisms that describes the genealogical relationships among species with a single ancestral species at its base.
Phylogeny is the actual genealogical relationships among all organisms.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Using Molecules to Understand the Tree of Life


Carl Woese and colleagues studied small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a molecule found in all organisms, to understand evolutionary relationships. rRNA is comprised of four chemical units called ribonucleotides. Symbolized by letters A, U, C, & G The sequence of ribonucleotides can change during evolution.
Based on the theory of evolution, rRNA sequences should be very similar in closely related organisms but less similar in less closely related organisms.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Phylogenic Tree of Life


A phylogenetic tree reflects relationships between species. Branches that share a recent common ancestor represent species that are closely related; branches that dont share recent common ancestors represent species that are more distantly related.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Interpreting the Tree of Life


The tree of life indicates three major groups of organisms: the eukaryotes Eukarya and two groups of prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea. Fungi and animals are more closely related to each other than either is to plants. Traditional classification schemes were often inaccurate.
The location of certain branches on the tree is hotly debated and the shape of the tree will continue to change as databases expand.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Taxonomy
Taxonomy is the effort to name and classify organisms. A taxon is a named group. To reflect the tree of life, Woese created a new taxonomic level called the domain, which consists of three taxa: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
A phylum is a major lineage within a domain.

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Linnaeus Taxonomic System of Classification


In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus established the classification system still in use today.
Each organism is given a unique two-part scientific name consisting of the genus and the species. A genus is made up of a closely related group of species. A species is made up of individuals that regularly breed together or have characteristics that are distinct from those of other species.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Rules of Nomenclature
An organisms genus and species designation is called its scientific name or Latin name.
Scientific names are always italicized. Genus names are always capitalized, but species names are notfor instance, Homo sapiens.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Doing Biology: The Nature of Science


All scientists ask questions that can be answered by measuring things by collecting data.
Science is about formulating hypotheses and finding evidence that supports or conflicts with those hypotheses. For example, using carefully designed experiments, biologists test ideas about the way the natural world works by testing the predictions made by alternative hypotheses. On the other hand, religious faith addresses questions that cannot be answered by data but instead focus on why we exist and how we should live.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis testing is a two-step process: 1. State the hypothesis as precisely as possible and list the predictions it makes. 2. Design an observational or experimental study that is capable of testing those predictions.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Why Do Giraffes Have Long Necks?


The food competition hypothesis argues that long necks evolved because those with long necks can reach food unavailable to other mammals. Predictions: Neck length is variable among giraffes. Neck length in giraffes is heritable. Giraffes feed high in trees.
Simmons and Scheepers tested the food competition hypothesis and found that the third prediction does not hold true. Thus, there may be better alternative hypotheses to explain neck length in giraffes.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Sexual Competition Hypothesis


An alternative hypothesis is that giraffes evolved long necks because longer-necked males win more fights than shorter-necked giraffes, and can then father more offspring.
Data support this hypothesis.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Experimental Design How Do Ants Navigate?


Experiments are a powerful scientific tool because they allow researchers to test the effect of a single, well-defined factor on a particular phenomenon.
Wittlinger and colleagues questioned how ants find their way back to their nest after foraging for food. The pedometer hypothesis states that ants always know how far they are from the nest because they track the number of steps taken and length of their stride.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Experimental Setup
Wittlingers group manipulated the ants into three groups after walking from the nest to a feeder: 1. Stumps legs were cut to form shorter-than-normal legs 2. Normal individuals were left alone with normal legs 3. Stilts bristles glued on legs to form longer-thannormal legs
Measured the distance the ants traveled back to the nest via a different route

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Results and Conclusion


A null hypothesis specifies what we should observe if the hypothesis being tested doesnt hold.
Results: Stumps stopped short of the nest. Normal ants returned to the nest. Stilts walked beyond the nest. Conclusion: Desert ants use information on stride length and number to calculate how far they are from the nest.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Elements of a Well-Designed Experiment


The experiment just described is well-designed:
1. It included a control group (the normal ants) to check for other factors that might influence the outcome. 2. Experimental conditions were controlled to eliminate other variables. 3. The test was repeated to reduce the effects of distortion due to small sample size.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Introduction to Experimental Design

Web Activity: Introduction to Experimental Design, Part 1

Web Activity : Introduction to Experimental Design, Part 2

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Principles of Experimental Design


Biologists practice evidence-based decision making. They ask questions about how organisms work, pose hypotheses to answer those questions, and use experimental or observational evidence to decide which hypotheses are correct.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.