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FORM 5

1.5 THE ROLE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN THE BODYS DEFENCE MECHANISM

INDUCTION
Enemies Alligator

Archer
Spear-thrower Castle

OBJECTIVES
By the end of the lesson, student should be able to: (i) State another function of circulatory system besides transport. (ii) Identify the three lines of defence mechanism of the body.

The Role Of The Circulatory System In The Bodys Defence Mechanism

Another function of the circulatory system besides transport is bodys defence mechanism.
A healthy body is able to protect itself from pathogens. What is pathogens?

Pathogens
disease causing micro-organisms
bacteria virus fungi, protozoa, parasite

What happen to the immune system when someone dies?

weeks

Body defence

First line of defence

Second line of defence

Third line of defence

First lines of defence


saliva antibacterial enzymes
tears antibacterial enzymes

skin prevents entry


stomach acid low pH kills harmful microbes

mucus membrane traps dirt and microbes

The Skin
Physical barrier: impenetrable to bacteria and

viruses. Continuous shedding of dead skin cells make it difficult for bacteria to grow on the skin. Chemical barrier:

secretes sebum as protective film. Acids and oil prevent growth of many microorganism. Secretes sweat: contain lysozyme that can digest cell wall of bacteria

Mucous membrane
Located along the trachea, respiratory passage,

digestive and urinary track. Secretes mucus that contain lysozyme. Example: in the nose

Second lines of defence


Pathogen that penetrate first line

of defence will face the second line of defence.

Involves leucocytes (w.b.c) Phagocytic white blood cells or

phagocytes can perform phagocytosis

Phagocytosis

Phagocytosis
1. The phagocyte is attracted by the chemical produce by the bacteria or damaged cells.

2. The phagocyte extends its pseudopodium toward the bacteria to engulf it

3. Ingestion of the bacterium forms the phagosome

4. The phagosome combines with a lysosome which releases lysozyme into the phagosome

5. The bacterium inside the phagosome is killed by the lysozyme. The breakdown products are absorbed by the phagocyte.

6. Formation of residual body containing indigestible materials.

7. The phagocyte releases the digested product from the cell.

Pus
During infection,

hundreds of phagocytes are needed. An accumulation of :

dead phagocytes destroyed bacteria dead cells

Third line of defence


Carried by immune system which help us to become

immune to certain disease eg: chicken pox. Immune system is a specific or targeted defence.

Specific response to a specific pathogen/antigen Formation of antibodies.

What is antigen? What is antibody?

Antigens

All cells have surface markers called antigens. Antigens are complex protein that can be recognized by our immune system body can recognise these as self or non-self (foreign) Found at outer layer of pathogen.

Antibodies
Proteins

found on the surface of lymphocytes, or Proteins release by lymphocyte into the blood plasma. Has specific antigenbinding site

An antibody

A lymphocyte

Specific response
During

infection, the immune system identifies the foreign antigens The antigens induce the lymphocytes to release certain antibodies into the blood stream to destroy a particular antigen using 4 mechanisms.

antibodies combine with their specific antigen

(like a lock and key)

this renders the pathogen harmless.

There are 4 mechanism to destroy pathogens

Mechanism agglutination

description/ functions Antigens are clumped together to be captured and destroy by phsgocytes Antibodies will bind around the toxin molecules to prevent it from attaching the body cells. Opsonins are antibodies that bind with antigens and acts as markers so phagocytes can recognise them easily.

Neutralisation (anti-toxin)

opsonisation

lysis

Lysin are antibodies that bind to antigens and cause the pathogen to disintegrates.

The interaction between antibody and antigen

which result in elimination of antigen from the body is known as immune response. Lymphocytes are distributed throughout the body in blood, lymph, thymus, lymph nodes and spleen. Therefore lymphatic system also important in helping defend the body against pathogens. Lymph nodes become swollen.

3 Lines Of Defence Mechanism In The Body

The first line of defence

The second line of defence

The third line of defence


Lymphocytes: - originate in the bone marrow. - produce antibodies.

Bodys natural barriers; Deals with pathogens that have bypassed the skin and mucous first line of defence. membrane Involves phagocytic Function: white blood cells - to prevent pathogens - macrophages. from entering the Phagocytosis by body. macrophages.

Can you imagine that when you wake up one morning your skin grows with mold?

The immune system, the natural ability to heal, is a part of creation. So, we must be thankful to God.