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PREPOSITIONS

A word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence. The baseball player in the white shirt hit a homerun.

Here is a list of common prepositions:


at above by below for from of off to toward

aboard
among against beneath beyond

between
since despite during except

in
inside into like near

on
outside over than through

under
until upon with without

Many prepositions show relationships in position.


POSITION: in, on, by, under, below, beneath, above, over, beside, behind, across, against, etc. Which preposition shows position: a. box of crackers b. man from Mars c. car behind us

Which preposition shows position: a. box of crackers b. man from Mars c. car behind us

Some prepositions show direction. DIRECTION: to, from, toward, down, up, at

The rock rolled down the mountain.


The preposition down shows the _________ in which the rock rolled.

Some prepositions show direction. DIRECTION: to, from, toward, down, up, at

The rock rolled down the mountain.


The preposition down shows the _direction_ in which the rock rolled.

A few prepositions show relationships in time. TIME: before, during, after, until, till
a. Brush your teethmeals b. Park your carthe corner. Which sentence requires a preposition that will show a time relationship? (a or b?)

A few prepositions show relationships in time. TIME: before, during, after, until, till
a. Brush your teethmeals b. Park your carthe corner. Which sentence requires a preposition that will show a time relationship? (a or b?)

OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION


The noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional phrase. The baseball player in the white shirt hit a homerun.

Always begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun.


Write sentences for these prepositional phrases:

Prepositional Phrases
Prepositions begin prepositional phrases. A prepositional phrase can be described with this equation: preposition any modifiers object of preposition Prepositional Phrase For example:
Ned juggles dots in the air. In the air is the prepositional phrase.

Prepositional Phrases as Adjectives and Adverbs

What do adjectives describe?

Nouns Pronouns

Modifies a noun or pronoun


It answers the same questions an adjective would:

Which one? What kind? How many?

The puppy in the shop window jumped up.

A prepositional phrase can function as an adjective


If it functions as an adjective it is called an adjective phrase. The fabrics from the Orient were quite beautiful. What is your prepositional phrase? From the Orient What does it describe? Fabrics (the subject of the sentence)

Prepositional Phrases as Adjectives (continued)


These ancient hangings are tapestries from other lands. What is your prepositional phrase? From other lands What does it describe? Tapestries (the noun in the predicate)

What do adverbs describe?


Verbs Adjectives Other Adverbs

An adverb phrase tells: When Where How an action takes place

Modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb


It answers the same questions an adverb would:

Where?

When?

How?

The puppy jumped to the food.

Prepositional Phrases can function as Adverbs


If it functions as an adverb, it is called an adverb phrase. The women are weaving on looms. What is your prepositional phrase? On looms What does it describe? Weaving (on loom describes the verb)

That fabric looks great on you. What is your prepositional phrase? On you What does it modify? Great (it describes an adjective)

Whats not a prepositional phrase?


Remember that the part of speech a word is depends on how it is used. A prepositional phrase will always be directly followed by its object (a noun or pronoun) and any modifiers, NEVER by a verb or by a subject and verb.

Watch for these prepositional imposters!


The preposition in a TRUE prepositional phrase will not be followed by a verb. That is called an infinitive.

For example, in the sentence, I like to read books in my spare time, the phrase to read is not a prepositional phrase because to is followed by the verb read.

Find the prepositional phrases in these sentences.


Sonny presents a fishing rod to his grandfather. The rod and reel with the red bow were bought in town. Sonny hopes he and Grandpa can go fishing in the summer.

Find the prepositional phrases in these sentences.


Sonny presents a fishing rod to his grandfather. The rod and reel with the red bow were bought in town. Sonny hopes he and Grandpa can go fishing in the summer.

Sometimes sentences have more than one prepositional phrase.


Find the prepositional phrases in these sentences: The student in the art class measures the figures in the painting with his thumb. He is painting a picture to go in a show for students and their parents, hosted by his college.

Sometimes sentences have more than one prepositional phrase.


Find the prepositional phrases in these sentences: The student in the art class measures the figures in the painting with his thumb. He is painting a picture to go in a show for students and their parents, hosted by his college.

Misplaced Prepositional Phrases


Prepositional phrases should go as closely as possible to the word they are modifying. If they modify a noun, they should be directly after that noun. If a prepositional phrase is misplaced, the meaning of the sentence is confused!

Heres an example of a misplaced prepositional phrase.


This Christmas, the family tree was decorated by Fred and Ethel with red and yellow ornaments.
(This sentence sounds like poor Fred and Ethel are covered in Christmas ornaments!)

Hint: What actually has the red and yellow ornaments?

Corrected!
Instead, correct the sentence by putting the phrase with red and yellow ornaments next to the words it modifies. This Christmas, the family tree with red and yellow ornaments was decorated by Fred and Ethel.

Heres another example of a misplaced prepositional phrase.


During the rain storm, Spot, with a blue umbrella, is being sheltered by his master.
(Isnt Spot a lucky dog to have his very own blue umbrella?)

How would you correct this sentence?


Hint: Who really has a blue umbrella?

Corrected!
How about this? Change the prepositional phrase with a blue umbrella so that it is next to master. During the rain storm, Spot is being sheltered by his master with a blue umbrella.

Heres a third example of a misplaced prepositional phrase.


The lost golf ball was discovered near the golf course hole by the golfer with a blue flag on top.
(This sentence seems to mean that the golfer had a blue flag flying on top of his head!)

Hint: What actually has a blue flag on top?

Corrected!
Instead, try this version:

The lost golf ball was discovered by the golfer near the golf course hole with a blue flag on top.
Now the prepositional phrases with a blue flag on top are directly after the words they modify, golf course hole. By the golfer is next to discovered. The sentence makes sense! The golfer was probably glad not to have to walk around all day with a blue flag on his head!

Select one of these uncorrected sentences.


The lady at the grocery lost her purse with a new hairdo. In the city, we saw a man walking a dog with a tuxedo on. My dress was sent to the dry cleaners with pink polka dots. My brother has a new car in college.

You are done!!!