ENGD2021

:

P r o d u c t In t r o d u c t io n & Pro je c t M a n a g e m e n t
•Human Resources
Further reading:

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR PMBOK Chapter 9 http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.

Human resources

By the end of this session you will: List the common aspects that are considered part of human resource Describe the components of organisational culture Explain the basics of team role analysis Discuss the elements of motivation Complete a past exam question

Human resources

Common aspects that are considered part of human resource are:

•Organisational culture •Team roles •Motivation •Legal aspects of employment •Scheduling –
such as contracts and recruitment, working environment, etc.(not discussed here)

(not specifically discussed here).

Human resources

•Organisational culture •Team roles •Motivation •Legal aspects of employment
and recruitment, working environment, etc.
(not discussed here)

such as contracts

•Scheduling –

(not specifically discussed here).

Human resources>organisational culture

What is

Organisational culture?
What is

The ‘culture’ where you work?

Human resources>organisational culture

A great many people refer to the classic phrase coined by the McKinsey organisation, that culture is

“how we do things around here”.
And while that may be true, there are so many elements that go into determining what you do and why, that this definition only scratches the surface.

Human resources>organisational culture

The Cultural Web

Human resources>organisational culture

The Paradigmsix interrelated elements that help to make up what Johnson and Scholes call the “paradigm” – the pattern or model – of the work environment. By analyzing the factors in each, you can begin to see the bigger picture of your culture: what is working, what isn’t working, and what needs to be changed.
Cultural web - modified after Johnson, G, 1988, “Rethinking incrementalism”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 75 – 91.

Human resources>organisational culture

Stories – The past events and people talked about inside and outside the company. Who and what the company chooses to immortalise says a great deal about what it values, and perceives as great behaviour.

Cultural web - modified after Johnson, G, 1988, “Rethinking incrementalism”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 75 – 91.

Human resources>organisational culture

Rituals and Routines – The daily behavior and actions of people that signal acceptable behavior. This determines what is expected to happen in given situations, and what is valued by management

Cultural web - modified after Johnson, G, 1988, “Rethinking incrementalism”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 75 – 91.

Human resources>organisational culture

Control Systems – The ways that the organisation is controlled. These include financial systems, quality systems, and rewards (including the way they are measured and distributed within the organisation.)

Cultural web - modified after Johnson, G, 1988, “Rethinking incrementalism”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 75 – 91.

Human resources>organisational culture

Organizational Structure – This includes both the structure defined by the organization chart, and the unwritten lines of power and influence that indicate whose contributions are most valued.

Cultural web - modified after Johnson, G, 1988, “Rethinking incrementalism”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 75 – 91.

Human resources>organisational culture

Power Structures – The pockets of real power in the company. This may involve one or two key senior executives, a whole group of executives, or even a department. The key is that these people have the greatest amount of influence on decisions, operations, and strategic direction.
Cultural web - modified after Johnson, G, 1988, “Rethinking incrementalism”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 75 – 91.

Human resources>organisational culture

Symbols – The visual representations of the company including logos, how plush the offices are, and the formal or informal dress codes.

Cultural web - modified after Johnson, G, 1988, “Rethinking incrementalism”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 75 – 91.

Human resources

•Organisational culture •Team roles •Motivation •Legal aspects of employment
and recruitment, working environment, etc.
(not discussed here)

such as contracts

•Scheduling –

(not specifically discussed here).

Human resources>team roles

What are

Team roles?
Teams need to have the right specific (technical) skills and a balance of personal attributes.

If an ideal can not be reached, it helps to have an insight into personalities.

Human resources>team roles

Two widespread approaches:

Belbin’s team roles(www.belbin.com)

and

Myers-Briggs.

Human resources>team roles

Belbin’s team roles
Defines team roles in the way one person’s behavior relates to others as part of a team. The accurate delineation of these TEAM ROLES is critical in understanding the dynamics of any management or work team.

Human resources>team roles

Human resources>team roles

Myers-Briggs
Myers-Briggs looks more at personality, divides population into 16 types:

•Introvert (I) or Extravert (E) •Sensing (S) or Intuition (N) –
processing information based on facts (S) or insight (N)

•Thinking (T) or Feeling (F) –
making decisions based on logic (T) or personal values (F)

•Judgement (J) or Perception (P) – organising your life based on
structure (J) or flexibility (P) http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.htm

Human resources>team roles

How useful do you think this type of profiling is?

Human resources

•Organisational culture •Team roles •Motivation •Legal aspects of employment
and recruitment, working environment, etc.
(not discussed here)

such as contracts

•Scheduling –

(not specifically discussed here).

Human resources>motivation

Motivation
“the driving forces that make people act as they do.”
www.pearsoned.co.uk/

Human resources>motivation

Motivation can be thought of as two basic types:

•Intrinsic Motivation •Extrinsic Motivation

Human resources>motivation

Intrinsic Motivation
When the drive to work come from within the person. Eg a desire to succeed, prove something to yourself etc.

Extrinsic Motivation
When the drive to work come from outside sources. Eg money, pressure, consequences, etc.

Human resources>motivation

books, websites, advice, coaching is easy to come by. But don’t forget the basic fact that:

motivation and de-motivation is affected most by one person interacting with another person.

Human resources>motivation

What motivates you?

Human resources>motivation

How can you get the best out of a team?

Human resources>motivation

Hawthorne Effect
productivity increases with attention given to workers by management. Implies social need.

Human resources>motivation

Leadership styles 1.Task behaviour
This refers to ‘direction’. Communication patterns, between leader and coworkers

2.

Relationship behaviour

This refers to the socioemotional support of the team member. Friendship, respect and trust of leader for his co-workers

Human resources>motivation

Leadership styles
four basic styles: For a new/immature subordinate, the relationship will start off in the Telling mode, then, as maturity increases go through selling, participating and delegating. Problems come when delegating is confused with abdicating (from either party!). Some of the difficulties can be overcome by objective setting.

Human resources>motivation

Transactional Analysis
The roles we play during conversations can be thought of as three basic types:

Child Parent Adult
The role we adopt is governed by the relationship we have with the other party.

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