ENV 414: Waste Management Fall 2012

MSW: Introduction
Faculty: Dr. Hassan Mahmud (HMd) TA: Md. S. H. Nahid 01710396858
Class Note 1
Dr. Mahmud

Faculty
• Dr. Hassan Mahmud,
Ph.D. Chemical/Environmental Engineering (Canada)

• Office: Room #SAC 712 • Phone: 8852000 x 2058; 01741391818 (M) • Office hours: ST : 12.00 -14.30 hrs MW: 8.00 - 9.30 hrs • E-mail: h.mahmud@northsouth.edu

Dr. Mahmud

Course Introduction
I.
1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Municipal Solid Waste Management
Introduction: Types of municipal solid waste Character and properties of municipal solid waste Logistics of waste Waste separation and recycling Thermal processing Landfill disposal Biological processing
Dr. Mahmud

3. 5. 1. 2. Hazardous and Industrial Waste Management Fundamentals Risk Assessment Pollution Prevention Treatment and Disposal Design and operation of integrated hazardous waste treatment facility Dr.Course Introduction (Cont.) II. 4. Mahmud .

Course Introduction (Cont. 3. 5. 4.) III. 2. Mahmud . Healthcare Waste Management 1. Fundamentals Risk Assessment Pollution Prevention Waste Handling Treatment and Disposal Dr.

Present Bangladesh Waste Management Dr. Mahmud .

Future Bangladesh Waste Management Dr. Mahmud .

Mahmud . • Waste is not a characteristic part of nature or normal ecosystem processes. Dr. • Only humans discard waste that cannot be readily recycled and used by other parts of the biosphere.Solid Waste Definition • Any solid item that is discarded is solid waste • Solid waste generated by a community is named Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) • Several terms are used to describe solid waste: – Trash – Garbage – Refuse – Rubbish • Some waste is more hazardous than others.

mining. or air pollution control facility and other discarded material. or contained gaseous and liquid material resulting from industrial. Mahmud . and from community activities. refuse. but does not include solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage. or by-product material as defined by the USA Atomic Energy Act of 1954. semi-solid. including solid. sludge from a wastewater treatment plant.Municipal Solid Waste Definition • USA EPA definition – Any garbage. commercial. or sources of special nuclear. or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges. water supply treatment plant. Dr. and agricultural operation.

History • • • Primitive society. Sanitary disposal of SW started in 19th Century. Dr. which killed ½ Europeans in 14th century. villages. the Black death. Mahmud • . waste disposal was not a problem: organic wastes and population density was very low Problem started with the formation of tribes. and communities. Uncontrolled waste disposal led to epidemic of plague.

• Waste has become widespread and in forms that the Earth cannot absorb. Dr.Early Concepts of Waste Management • Throughout most of human history. waste management has focused on concentration and containment. • Since the beginning of the twentieth century. Mahmud . wastes were disposed of through a “dilute and disperse” strategy.

Traditional Waste Management • In the twentieth century. impoundments. which essentially converts it to gas and injects most of it into the atmosphere – Storing the waste in dumps. and recently. humans have dealt with solid wastes in three basic ways: – Burning the waste. – Disposal by injection or burial deep underground in rock cavities Dr. Mahmud . sanitary landfills. which started in early 1940s.

Mahmud .Dumps • Open dumps. where gravel and stone have been removed. are still a common form of waste disposal although they create a variety of environmental problems. polluting the air and water. • Refuse is piled up without being covered or otherwise protected. the first approach to waste concentration. Dr. – Common sites are abandoned mines and quarries. – Natural low areas such as swamps or floodplains and hillside areas above or below towns. and aesthetic degradation. health hazards. • Open dumps create a nuisance by providing breeding sites for the pests. – Dumps have been located wherever land is available without regard to safety. creating a health hazard.

drains and canals are clogged with waste What are the environmental impacts? Dr.Dumping: Low-lying areas. Mahmud .

Present Dumping Practice in Dhaka Are the workers safe? Dr. Mahmud What should be done? .

Mahmud .Environmental Impact of Dumping VERMINS Spreading more than 40 Diseases METHANE GAS Bad Odor & Green House gas LEACHATE Polluting Ground & Surface Water What are the health effects? Dr.

• Concerns about deep-well injection include: – – – – Potential groundwater contamination Earthquake generation Loss of future use of some aquifers Adequate monitoring Dr.Deep-Well Injection • Various types of industrial and hazardous wastes have been disposed of by injecting them into deep wells drilled in the Earth’s crust. Mahmud .

Ocean Dumping • Types of Waste – Dredge spoils – Industrial wastes – Sewage sludge – Construction debris – Solid waste • The most seriously affected areas are near shore Botkin and Keller Environmental Science 5e Dr. Mahmud .

Mahmud .Ocean Dumping Dr.

Dr. Mahmud Botkin and Keller Environmental Science .

sustainable waste management involving resource recovery has become a preferred alternative. Dr.Modern Trends in Waste Management • Recently. no net waste generation. • The goal is to achieve “zero waste”. • Ideal essence of industrial ecology where waste from one part of the system would be a resource for another part. in addition to limiting waste at the source. Mahmud . i.e.

Waste Management in the Future • The commonly accepted approach to waste treatment would follow the “waste management hierarchy”: – – – – Source reduction Reuse of products Recovery and recycling Waste treatment and incineration – Storage and disposal 3Rs • Integrated waste management approach Dr. Mahmud .

Mahmud . and recycled. • Bury what is left in state-of-art landfills after the first four goals have been met Dr. reused.Hierarchy of goals of IWM • Reduce waste and pollution • Reuse as many things as possible • Recycle and compost as much waste as possible • Chemically or biologically treat or incinerate waste that can’t be reduced.

Mahmud .Integrated waste management • The major concept of IWM is 3Rs: – Reuse – Reduce – Recycling • At least 50% reduction of solid waste can be achieved through – Better design of packaging to reduce waste (10% source reduction). Dr. – Establishment of recycling programs (30% reduction). and – Large-scale composting/digestion programs (60% reduction).

weight has been reduced by 35%. aluminum cans have been reduced in weight by 35%. Since 1965. Dr.Shrinking the Waste Stream – Source Reduction Since 2 liter soft drink bottle was introduced in 1977. Mahmud .

. • spaces. • raw materials. Mahmud • energy.Benefits of Recycling • Prevents emission. water pollutants • Saves • Creates jobs. • Conserves resources for future generation Dr.

Waste Management in the Future • The most beneficial form of waste management is ultimately reducing consumption (related to the Precautionary Principle) through – the use of alternative materials and products – change of manufacturing procedures. – and ultimately less consumption. Dr. Mahmud .

Mahmud . transportation. separation. recovery and disposal – Provide training Dr. • 1965: Solid waste disposal act – Promote SWM and resource recovery – Provide technical and financial support to municipalities – Promote national research and development to improve SWM – Provide guideline for SW collection.Legislations • 1899: Rivers and Harbors Act restrict dumping in navigable waters and adjacent lands.

Mahmud . • 1970: Resources Recovery Act shifted SWM from disposal to resources recovery. treatment and disposal. • 1976: Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) gave legal footing of the guidelines for SW storage.Legislations (Cont. • 1981: Public Utility Regulation and policy Act directs to purchase waste-to energy power. • 1980: Comprehensive Environmental Response. Introduction of EIS.) • 1969: National Environmental Policy Act gave public saw in decision making. Dr. Compensation and Liability Act provide funds for uncontrolled MSW and Hazardous waste disposal sites.

Legislations (Cont. Ministry of Environment and Forest is currently preparing a comprehensive solid waste management handling rules for the country. which are given below: – National Level Framework – Local Level Legal Framework Dr. Mahmud . The existing legal aspects relating to solid waste management can be classified into two groups. However.) • No separate policy or handling rules for solid waste management in Bangladesh.

3) Orange-B and 4) Red. for the purpose of environmental clearance. These categories are: 1) Green. Mahmud . 1995 requires that before establishment of industrial enterprise as well as undertaking of projects environmental aspects must be given due consideration and prior environmental clearance is obtained. Dr.National Level Framework • Environment Conservation Act. 2) Orange-A. As such. the Environment Conservation Rules 1997 made under the Act have divided industries and projects into four categories depending upon the pollution load and likely impact on the environment.

National Level Framework • Orange-B and Red categories are required to submit an Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) Report and the design of the effluent treatment plant (ETP). An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has to be undertaken and the EIA report to be approved by the Department of Environment (DOE) before installation or import of equipment for any industry or project under Red category. Dr. final clearance from DOE is required. All municipal land fill sites as well as installation of any kind of incinerators fall within red category and environmental clearance from DOE is mandatory. Mahmud . Prior to commissioning of projects falling under orange-B and red category.

1995). Dr. water supply and environmental awareness etc. solid waste management. by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) of the Government of Bangladesh in consultation with people from all walks of life. NEMAP has recommended for actions in the areas of sanitation. NEMAP has identified key environmental issues and recommended measures to conserve. community based solid waste management and community based wastewater treatment (GoB. promote sustainable development and generally raise the quality of human life. Based on the findings and recommendations of NEMAP. improve and reduce environmental degradation. the government has taken up projects like community-based water supply and sanitation. Mahmud .National Level Framework • National Environmental Management Action Plan (NEMAP) has been prepared for a 10-year period (19952005).

public sanitation. efficient and reliable services. 1998. sanitation and solid waste disposal. Dr. prepared by the Government of Bangladesh has clearly recommended the municipalities for privatization of services as well as giving priority to facilities for slum dwellers including provision of water supply. The policy considers the interest of providing economic. drain cleaning and road maintenance (GoB.National Level Framework • Urban Management Policy Statement. Mahmud . 1998a). municipalities shall endeavor to contract out solid waste disposal.

National Level Framework • National Policy for Water Supply and Sanitation 1998 prepared by the Local Government Division of the Ministry of Local Government Rural Development & Cooperatives gives special emphasis on participation of private sector and NGOs in water supply and sanitation in urban areas. removal and management of solid waste to the private sector. where feasible collection. Some solid waste and recycling related strategies under this policy are given below: – Local Government Bodies (City Corporations and municipalities) may transfer. 1998b). Mahmud encouraged (GoB. . – Measures to be taken to recycle the waste as much as possible and promote use of organic waste materials for compost and bio-gas production – Private sector including NGO participation in sanitation is Dr.

and human excreta management using anaerobic digestion or ecosanitation and wastewater treatment. Mahmud . aerobic composting. CDM allows foreign direct investment (FDI) in projects. anaerobic digestion.National Level Framework • National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Strategy 2004 prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has identified waste sector as one of the potential sectors for attracting CDM finance in the country. which reduces green house gas emissions. The waste sector options prevent methane release to atmosphere from biomethanation processes. The methane collected can be flared or used to generate electricity. poultry and other animal waste. Dr. The waste sector options for Bangladesh can be landfill gas recovery.

Mahmud . which are as follows: – The pourshava or city corporation shall be responsible for sanitation of the municipality/city corporation area and for the control of environmental pollution. These ordinances contain identical provisions relating to solid waste management. In Bangladesh. For this purpose the city corporation or poursahava may cause such measures to be taken as are required by the ordinances. solid waste management is entrusted with urban local government bodies.Local Level Legal Framework • There is no adequate legislation in the country to address the growing problems of solid waste. The responsibility of removal and disposal of municipal solid waste lies with the City Corporations and municipalities. The six City Corporation Ordinances and Pourshava Ordinance 1977 are the only local law that gives some idea about disposal of municipal waste. Dr.

• Subject to the general control and supervision of the pourashava/city corporation. public latrines. require that all refuse accumulating in any premise or land shall be deposited by the owner or occupier of such premises or land in designated bins or receptacles. the occupiers of all other buildings and land shall be responsible for removal of refuse from such buildings and lands. Dr.• A pourashava or city corporation shall make adequate arrangements for removal of refuse from all public streets. and if so required by the governments shall provide public bins or other receptacles at suitable places and by public notice. and all buildings and land vested in the pourshava or city corporation and for collection and proper disposal of such waste. • The poursahava/city corporation may. urinals. Mahmud Local Level Legal Framework . drains.

Dr. Mahmud . and emptied with due regard to health and convenience of the public.Local Level Legal Framework • All refuse removed and collected by staff of pourashava/city corporation or under their control and supervision and all refuse deposited in the bins and other receptacles provided by the poursahava/city corporation shall be the property of the pourashava/city corporation. • A pourashava/city corporation shall provide adequate public drains in the municipality/city area and all such drains shall be constructed. maintained. kept cleared.

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