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CIVIL 2nd YEAR Team 2

Water is essential element There is no life with out it Earth as a watery world-71% Fresh water availability-0.024% Water in oceans-97% Remaining 3% fresh water . Of this 2.997% is ice and rest 0.003% available as soilmoisture, ground water and the water in lakes and rivers.

Surface water Streams Rivers lakes Reservoirs

Layers of sand,gravel or bedrock throuhg which ground water flows are Aquifiers Natural recharge India recieves more rainfall during June to September (monsoon) due to seasonal winds and temperature difference between land and the sea When the composition of water changes directly or indirectly as a result of mans activities such that it becomes unfit for any purpose it is said to be polluted.

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.

Introduction Categories Ground water pollution Causes Transport and chemical reaction of water pollutants Measurement Control of pollution

Water pollution is a major global problem Leading worldwide cause for deaths and diseases Accounts more than 14000 people death daily 1000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day 90% Chinas cities suffer Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water.

Point source Non point source

Pathogens Chemical and other contaminants Thermal pollution

Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans

Fish and shellfish kills have been reported, because toxins climb the food chain after small fish consume copepods, then large fish eat smaller fish, etc. Each successive step up the food chain causes a stepwise concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals(e.g. mercury) and persistent organic pollutants such as DDT. This is known as biomagnifications, which is occasionally used interchangeably with bioaccumulation.

Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical, chemical and biological. Most involve collection of samples, followed by specialized analytical tests

Domestic sewage Industrial wastewater Agricultural wastewater Construction site storm water Urban runoff (storm water)

Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. Some industries have been successful at redesigning their manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants, through a process pollution prevention.

Cooling ponds, man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation, convection, and radiation Cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat transfer Cogeneration , a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes

Aware of the continuity of the availability of water without damaging the springs so as not contaminated. Do not throw garbage into the river. Reducing the intensity of household waste. Doing so the filtering sewage waste plant which later united with the waste water stream is not evil destroyers of ecosystems. Making proper sanitation and clean water sources for other clean unpolluted. Reducing the pollution load of water bodies by industrial and domestic. Reducing the burden of emissions from motor vehicles and industry. Supervise the use of hazardous and toxic wastes and disposal of hazardous and toxic wastes.