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Feedback Controllers

8.1 Stirred-Tank Heater Example

Basic components in the feedback control loop

• Process being controlled(stirred tank).

• Sensor and transmitter.

• Controller.

• SCR and final control element(electrical heater) Actuator.

• Transmission lines(electrical cables) between the various

instruments.

Figure 8.1. Schematic diagram for a stirred-tank control system.

• Control objective ; To keep the tank temperature at the desired

value by adjusting the rate of heat input from the heater.

T

R

T Q

8.2 Controller Implementation Using PC

Figure 8.2. Typical equipment for process control using computer.

DO sensor

y(t)

u(t)

blower

power

effluent

influent

D/A converter

A/D converter

serial port

Personal

Computer

Controller

Actuator

Sensor

Process

Transmission

line

8.3.1 Historical Perspectives

250 B.C ; Greeks, water level controller

Their mode of operation was very similar to that of the

level regulator in the modern flush toilet.

1788 ; James Watt, fly-ball governor

It played a key role in the development of stream power.

1930s ; PID controller became commercially available

The first theoretical papers on process control were

published.

1940s ; Pneumatic PID controller

1950s ; Electronic PID controller

Late 1950 ~ 1960s ; The first computer control applications

8.3 Controllers

8.3.2 PID Controllers

– PID controller is the controller that has the three basic control

modes of Proportional(P), Integral(I) , and Derivative(D).

– PID controllers are still used widely in industry because of their

simplicity, robustness, and successful practical applications.

– In spite of the development of many advanced control

algorithms, nearly 80% of the controllers in the industrial field are

PID controller.

Figure 8.3. Flow control system.

Figure 8.4. Schematic diagram of a feedback controller.

8.3.2.1 Structure of PID Controllers.

• Three parts of the PID controller :

Proportional(P) part:

) 1 . 8 ( )) ( ) ( ( ) ( t y t y k t u

s c P

÷ =

Integral(I) part: ) 2 . 8 ( * *)) ( *) ( ( ) (

0

dt t y t y

k

t u

t

s

I

c

I

}

÷ =

t

Derivative(D) part:

) 3 . 8 (

)) ( ) ( (

) (

dt

t y t y d

k t u

s

D c D

÷

= t

• PID controller is sum of the above three part as follows.

Where and denote the set point(the desired process output)

and process out put. Constants are called proportional gain,

integral time and derivative time, respectively.

) (t y

s

) (t y

D I c

k t t , ,

* *)) ( *) ( (

0

dt t y t y

k

t

s

I

c

}

÷ +

t

)) ( ) ( ( t y t y k

s c

÷ =

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t u t u t u t u

D I P PID

+ + =

) 4 . 8 (

)) ( ) ( (

dt

t y t y d

k

s

D c

÷

+ t

1. Transfer function.

8.3.2.2 Roles of Three Parts

• Proportional part : Since the control output( ) is

proportional to the error , it plays role in pushing

the process output to the set point as much as the error.

)) ( ) ( ( t y t y

s

÷

) (t u

P

) ( )) ( ) ( ( ) ( t e k t y t y k t u

c s c P

= ÷ =

) 5 . 8 (

) (

) (

c

P

k

s E

s U

=

2. Advantage : immediate corrective action.

3. Disadvantage : steady-state error(offset).

4. Usage : when the steady-state error is tolerable( ex. level

control which wants to prevent the system from overflowing

or drying), proportional-only controller is attractive because

of its simplicity seldom used only.

To remove the steady-state error(offset), the integral

control action should be included in the feedback controller.

Steady-state error.

For usual process(i.e., open-loop stable processes), the control

output should be nonzero to keep the process output in a nonzero

set point.

) (t u

PD

)) ( ) ( ( t y t y k

s c

÷ = ) 6 . 8 (

)) ( ) ( (

dt

t y t y d

k

s

D c

÷

+ t

PD(or P) controller output is always zero at steady-state if

the error is zero(i.e., ).

PD(or P) controller cannot be nonzero constant when the error is

zero at steady-state. So, the PD(or P) controller cannot keep the

process output in a nonzero set point for open-loop stable processes.

) (t u

PD

) ( ) ( t y t y

s

=

• Offset can be calculated as follows. Here denotes steady state

and is the static gain(or DC gain) of the process.

ss

) 7 . 8 ( )) ( ( ) ( ) ( t y y k k t u k t y

ss s c ss ss

÷ · = · =

k

) 8 . 8 (

1

) ( : Offset

c

s

ss s

k k

y

t y y

· +

= ÷

• Consider the following PD controller( the following derivation

is applicable to P controller case).

•Integral part(= reset or floating control part) : Since the

integral part is not necessarily zero even though the error at

steady-state is zero, it plays an important role in rejecting

the offset.

2. Disadvantages

Not immediate corrective action.

Practically PI controller is used.

Oscillatory response.

Reduce the stability of the system.

Solution ; proper tuning of the controller or including

derivative control action which tends to counteract the destabilizing

effects.

Reset windup( or integral windup).

(8.9) constant nonzero * *)) ( *) ( (

0

= ÷

}

dt t y t y

k

t

s

I

c

t

= ) (

,

t u

ss PID

1. Transfer function. (8.10)

1

) (

) (

s

k

s E

s U

I

c I

· =

t

• The large overshoot occurs because the integral term continues to increase

until the error signal changes sign at .

• Antireset windup ; halting the integral action whenever the controller

output saturates. Most of commercial controllers provides antireset windup.

Reset windup( or Integral windup).

• Sustained error Large integral term Saturation of controller

output Further buildup of the integral term while the controller is

saturated is referred to as reset windup or integral windup.

• Reset windup occurs when a PI or PID controller encounters a

sustained error, for example, during the start-up of a batch process or

after a large set-point change.

Figure 8.5. Reset windup during a set-point change.

1

t t =

3. Disadvantage : If the process measurement is noisy, this term will

change widely and amplify the noise unless the measurement is filtered.

•Derivative part(= rate action,pre-act or anticipatory

control part) : Since this part represents approximately the

increment of the error after time from the present time , it plays

a role in rejecting the future error in advance by increasing the

control output proportional to the future incremental error.

t

d

t

e(t)

present (t) future ( d

t t +

)

dt t de

d

/ ) ( t

d

t

e(t)

Figure 8.6. Extrapolation using the

derivative of the error

1. Transfer function.

(8.11)

) (

) (

s k

s E

s U

D c

D

· = t

2. Advantage : This part enhance

the robustness of the PID

controller by considering abrupt

change of the error.

2. Disadvantages.

Derivative kick

Proportional kick

8.3.2.3 Ideal PID Controller.

(8.12)

1

1

) (

) (

(

¸

(

¸

+ + = s

s

k

s E

s U

D

I

c

PID

t

t

Electronic or pneumatic device that provides ideal derivative

action cannot be built(is physically unrealizable). Commercial

controllers approximate the ideal behavior as follows.

(8.13)

1

1

1

) (

) (

(

¸

(

¸

+

+

(

¸

(

¸

+

=

s

s

s

s

k

s E

s U

D

D

I

I

c

PID

ot

t

t

t

where is a small number, typically between 0.05 and 0.2. o

1. Transfer function.

8.3.3 On-Off Controllers

– The controller output of ideal on-off controller.

– Advantage : Simple and inexpensive controllers.

– Disadvantage

Not versatile and ineffective.

Continuous cycling of the controlled variable and excess

wear on the final control element.

– Usage : Thermostats in heating system.

Domestic refrigerator.

Noncritical industrial applications.

(8.14) ) (

min

max

¹

´

¦

=

÷

u

u

t u

off on

where and denote the on and off values, respectively.

On-off controller can be considered to be a special case of P

controller with a very high controller gain

max

u

min

u

• No feedback control make the process slowly reach a new steady-

state.

• Proportional control speeds up the process response and reduces

the offset.

• Integral control eliminates offset but tends to make the response

oscillatory.

• Derivative control reduces both the degree of oscillation and

response time.

8.3.4 Typical Response of Feedback Control Systems

Figure 8.7. Typical process response with feedback control.

C is the deviation from the initial steady-state.

• Increasing the controller gain.

less sluggish process response.

• Too large controller gain.

undesirable degree of oscillation or even unstable response.

• An intermediate value of the controller gain

best control result.

8.3.4.1 Effect of controller gain .

Figure 8.8. Process response with proportional control.

c

k

Figure 8.9. PI control: (a) effect of integral time (b) effect of controller gain.

8.3.4.2 Effect of integral time .

I

t

• Increasing the integral time.

more conservative(sluggish) process response.

• Too large integral time.

too long time to reach to the set point after load upset or set-

point change occurs.

• Theoretically, offset will be eliminated for all values of .

I

t

Figure 8.10. PID control: effect of derivative time.

8.3.4.3 Effect of derivative time .

D

t

• Increasing the derivative time.

improved response by reducing the maximum deviation,

response time and the degree of oscillation.

• Too large derivative time.

measurement noise tends to be amplified and the response

may be oscillatory.

• Intermediate value of is desirable.

D

t

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