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‘The state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’
To sustain a healthy lifestyle person needs: •A balanced and varied diet Take exercise Proper shelter Enough sleep
Good hygiene will reduce the likelihood of infection
What is disease? Disease is a disorder or malfunction of the mind or body, which leads to a departure from good health. Can be a disorder of a specific tissue or organ due to a single cause. E.g. malaria. May have many causes. Often referred to as multifactorial. E.g. heart disease.
Disease diagnosed by a doctor analysing the symptoms (physical and mental signs).
Sudden and rapid onset Symptoms disappear quickly
Long term Symptoms lasting months or years
Categories of diseases
Physical disease Results from permanent or temporary damage to the body .
protists and parasites can also cause disease Diseases are said to be infectious or communicable if pathogens can be passed from one person to another. Fungi. .Infectious diseases Organisms that cause disease inside the human body are called pathogens Bacteria and Viruses are the best know pathogens.
with vomiting and/or diarrhoea. Causes Influenza is caused by a virus which attacks our body cells resulting in various manifestations depending on the strain of the virus. with higher fever and severe aches and pains. Do not be surprised to be quite depressed. This may be associated with severe headache. Sometimes there is a gastrointestinal element. In the era of rapid air transport the world wide spread of a new type of influenza can be extremely fast. but most people recover. The worst symptoms usually last for three to five days. and those with poor immunity. Most people will find it impossible to leave their bed and feel terrible. and then should begin to improve. especially in the very young.Examples: Influenza ('flu) Symptoms Influenza is a virus which causes a severe form of respiratory tract infection with generalised bodily symptoms. . Influenza makes everyone feel terrible. Many people think they have had "flu" when all that they have suffered is a bad cold. It is common to need two to three weeks off work as there is considerable debility left after the feverish illness is over. It does however have a small. cough. this is a natural after-effect of the condition. as a result of the fever. intermittent sweating and shivering. often in the back and muscles. then you may well be developing influenza. New mutations of the virus arise all the time and unfortunately immunity against one strain (which is conferred by exposure or immunisation) does not protect against other strains. It spreads around the world in epidemics and is responsible for much ill health as well as many deaths. When you have influenza you will know the difference. the very old. If you start to develop cold symptoms but starting more rapidly and rather more violently. but significant mortality. and.
Measles Chickenpox .
The elderly. but sometimes it can be severe. and most persons recover without treatment. However. In these patients. In these persons. infants. in some persons the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized. but tends to be milder and the case-fatality rate is much lower. fever. death can occur within hours. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea. vomiting. diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics. Paratyphoid fever shows similar symptoms. and those with impaired immune systems are more likely to have a severe illness Cholera Cholera is an acute. Without treatment. Approximately one in 20 infected persons has severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea. Case-fatality rates of 10% can be reduced to less than 1% with appropriate antibiotic therapy. and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. the Salmonella infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream. It is sometimes accompanied by hoarse cough and constipation or diarrhoea. severe headache. It is recognized by the sudden onset of sustained fever. The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days. and leg cramps. nausea and severe loss of appetite.Salmonella Water or food borne Salmonellosis is an infection with a bacteria called Salmonella. . The infection is often mild or without symptoms. Typhoid Typhoid fever is contracted when people eat food or drink water that has been infected with Salmonella typhi.
In women. · pain or discomfort urinating · itching or discharge from the anus · sore throat There may be no symptoms in both men and women. cervix. it can not be picked up from cervical smear.where the penis is put into the rectum · oral sex . How could I get it? Gonorrhoea can be passed on through: · vaginal sex . Some may notice: · an unusual discharge · pain or discomfort when passing water · sore throat. Can I get it from toilet seats or towels? You cannot it get it from toilet seats or swimming pools or by sharing cups and towels.that is the problem with gonorrhoea. urethra. And sometimes other sexually transmissible infections can hide the symptoms of gonorrhoea. .where partners lick or suck each others sexual parts.where the man puts his penis in the woman's vagina · anal sex . This is enough to stain the under pants. rectum or even the throat. How do I know if I have it? You may not know . Men may notice: · white or yellow discharge oozing from the tip of the penis. Most women notice nothing at all until the infection has spread from the cervix.Sexually transmitted Gonorrhoea This is caused by bacteria and can affect the vagina.
Again it may clear without any treatment. This is called primary syphilis. It usually starts as a painless sore and may be any where in the private part. you feel unwell with flu-like illness and develop skin rashes. This period is known as secondary syphilis.Syphilis This is caused by the bacteria called Treponema pallidum which is spread mainly by sexual intercourse. heart and brain. If left untreated it usually heals in 3 . About 8 to 10 weeks after the sore has healed. It then lurks in the body and is only found when blood test are done for it and in others this may go on to cause problems with the joints. This period is what we call tertiary syphilis. . This could occur over period sometimes lasting up to 2 years. Sometimes what looks like warts occur around the genitals and the peri-anal areas. If you are pregnant. anus) or in women on the neck of the womb. but can be passed on to your baby if are pregnant..8 weeks. in this country you would have had this test during your antenatal visit to the hospital. areas of contact during sex as (the mouth.
necrotic tissue (poor blood supply. operative wounds. compound fracture.wound.tetanus neonatorum: infection of umbilical stump . ulcer. drug injection .10 year latency reported •Progression of disease . burn. foreign bodies also contribute .mixed infections. anoxia) needed . Clinical Tetanus •Spores deposited in tissue .
transfusions.Malaria Malaria infects an estimated 300 million people. and is spread by mosquitoes. However. some of the sporozoans that cause malaria heve developed immunity to some of the more commonly employed medicines. and shared hypodermic needles. Infected individuals can be treayted with a variety of medicines. Control of mosquito populations has led to declines in malaria in many areas. .
Global Statistics 40% of the world's population is at risk 300-500 million new cases/year 1.5-2.7 million deaths/year Malaria is endemic to over 100 countries and territories More than 90% of all cases are in sub-Saharan Africa .
Non-infectious diseases Diseases that are not caused by pathogens .
memory and personal and social behaviour May have physical symptoms. Example of a mild condition is claustrophobia .Mental diseases A disease that affects a person’s mind Thoughts. emotions.
Serious mental diseases include: Creutzfelt-Jacob disease (CJD) Destroyed brain tissue resulting in spongy appearance Infection with prion protein Results in loss of co-ordination and mental derangement Fatal .
At this point in time. the CJD Surveillance Unit has not seen any cases of variant CJD with symptoms that began before 1994. There are only a few deaths per year due to iatrogenic CJD in the United Kingdom. IATROGENIC CJD Iatrogenic CJD is also very rare.GENETIC CJD Genetic CJD is a very rare illness. Canada and the USA. In this form. Aside from 6 cases in France. genetic cases are seen in which no previous family history is identified. The current view on variant CJD is that it has resulted from transmission of infection from BSE in cattle to humans via infectivity in food. Similar figures are seen in other countries such as Australia. It is not confined to the United Kingdom and. variant CJD has been confined to the United Kingdom. However. The most important example of this in the United Kingdom relates to CJD transmitted via Human Growth Hormone treatment in childhood. If this theory is correct (and it has not been proven at this point) then the disease arises simply as a chance event inside the brain. VARIANT CJD Variant CJD was first reported in 1996. one case in Italy and one case in the USA. SPORADIC CJD Sporadic CJD is numerically the most common form of CJD. This is CJD which has been accidentally transmitted during the course of medical or surgical procedures. Occasionally. thereby resulting in disease. has been found in every country in the world where it has been looked for. The diagnosis is usually clear from the history of a relevant medical or surgical treatment in the past. There are therefore some fifty to sixty deaths per year due to sporadic CJD in the United Kingdom. The illness is therefore not "caught" in any way and there is no causal relationship between this form and BSE. it would not be "caught" in any way. The definitive test in relation to genetic CJD is a blood test in order that the gene can be analysed to see whether there is any genetic abnormality. In general. In most cases. The cause of sporadic CJD remains uncertain. the illness is known within the family because of the family history. the most favoured current theory suggests that the normal prion protein in the brain undergoes a spontaneous change to the abnormal form. . On this basis. indeed. CJD is caused by an inherited abnormal gene. it affects about one person per million of the population. one case in Ireland. The United Kingdom has a population of around 58 million and there are only a few deaths due to genetic CJD in a year.
Alzheimer’s disease .
Degeneration of certain groups of brain cells that usually secrete acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) Symptoms: -progressive degeneration of memory -General decline in all mental faculties .dementia Common in older people Can occur in younger age groups .genetic .
marijuana. which may be different for different people. skunk. It seems to be more common in city areas. joints) seems to bring on schizophrenia. Men with schizophrenia usually notice the first signs in their late teens or early twenties. . Who does it affect? Schizophrenia affects men and women equally. the use of street drugs like ecstasy (e). pot. Women are often first affected a little later.How common is it? Schizophrenia affects one in every hundred people. spliffs. dope. and cannabis (hash. This is about the same for many different places and peoples across the world. but can develop at any time after this. Genes Brain Damage New ways of producing pictures of the brain show that some people with schizophrenia have larger spaces in the brain than people who don't suffer from the illness. in their twenties or thirties We don’t yet know for sure what causes schizophrenia. It is likely to be a combination of several different factors. amphetamines (speed). LSD (acid). ganja. It rarely starts before the age of 15. Stress Street Drugs and Alcohol Sometimes.
as in depression. the particular problems they present. It is a serious condition but. it is possible to live one’s life without too much interference. but some will only experience either depression or mania. or high. Many sufferers have both high and low phases. sufferers experience mood swings that are far beyond what most people ever experience in the course of their lives. as in periods when we might feel very elated. A more technical term used to describe this illness is ‘bipolar affective disorder’. . These high periods are known as ‘manic’ phases. with the right treatment. These mood swings may be low. This leaflet will describe both aspects of the disorder. ways of coping with them and the range of treatments available.In manic depressive illness.
imbalances in secretion of neurotransmitters in brain. Treatment – drugs to mimic or inhibit neurotransmitters .Schizophrenia and manic depression Usually occurs in young people May not be apparent for some year owing to subtleties And periods of perceptible good health Clinical changes: .changes in blood flow in brain .
Deficiency disease Associated with malnutrition .
It struck the crew of Magellan's around the world journey in 1519-22 and a British report in 1600 indicated that in the previous 20 years some 10. performed a simple experiment to determine what might be effective as a cure for scurvy. On May 20. the ship's physician. . The two men who drank apple cider improved but were not well enough to work.two spoonfuls of vinegar three times a day 4. All 12 shared a common diet for breakfast.concoction of herbs and spices 5. Mr.quart of apple juice daily 2. James Lind. Lind concluded that something in the citrus fruit was counteracting the cause of the scurvy disease so he gave citrus fruits to all the other men and observed that all were cured of the disease.half-pint of sea water daily 6. None of the others showed any improvement.Scurvy In 1747 as the HMS Salisbury sailed from England to the Plymouth Colony.25 drops of elixir vitriol (sulfuric acid and aromatics) 3. Scurvy was described as early as 1500 BC in the Ebers papyrus and other descriptions appeared in Greek and Roman writings.000 mariners had been destroyed by the disease. 1747. One was fit for duty in six days and the other was also well in six days and was appointed as nurse to all the others. lunch and dinner but each group received a different supplement as follows: 1.two oranges and one lemon daily The two men who ate the oranges and lemon recovered immediately. Lind divided his 12 ill men into six groups of two each.
that is necessary for the perception of objects in dim light. that vitamin A was identified as the crucial element. Consequently. are impaired in their capacity to produce a chemical compound called rhodopsin. or visual purple. but it was not until the first quarter of the 20th cent.night blindness inability to see normally in subdued light. It is usually a result of vitamin A deficiency. or the minimum intensity of light necessary for sight. The rod cells. . is greatly increased. Treatment of night blindness consists of the oral or intravenous administration of vitamin A. the visual threshold. one of two light-sensitive areas of the retina of the eye. Folk medicine has long recognized the role of the ingestion of liver in alleviating the condition.
Rickets legs in a child with rickets closeup of right knee .
Examples of deficiency diseases Scurvy – vitamin C Night blindness – vitamin A Rickets – vitamin D Iron deficiency anaemia .
Degenerative diseases Usually associated with ageing A gradual loss of function in one or several organs or tissues can occur (associated with a progressive destruction of specialised cells) in youth or middle age Reasons for this loss of function: .Deficiency in childhood which leads to degeneration later in life. .Immune system attack its own cells .
Other health problems commonly associated with muscular dystrophy include the following: •heart problems •scoliosis (a condition that causes the back bones to curve) •obesity The most common form of muscular dystrophy is called Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (DMD). Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak.Muscular Dystrophy What is muscular dystrophy? Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a broad term that describes a genetic (inherited) disorder of the muscles. . It occurs in one out of 3.500 live male births. Muscular dystrophy rarely affects girls. Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy usually affects only males. but when it does. the condition is normally not as severe. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.
multiple sclerosis. motor neurone and Alzheimer’s Cardiovascular Examples: coronary heart disease and stroke Cancers .Types of degenerative diseases Skeletal muscle and nervous system Examples: muscular dystrophy.
Social diseases .
Hydrologists estimate that when the amount of fresh water per person in a country drops below 1. .700 cubic meters a year the country is facing water stress.
Social factors Factors affecting disease: Standard of housing – overcrowding/unhygienic Environmental factors such as levels of pollution and Purity of water supply Lack of food – deficiency diseases Excess of food – diseases associated with obesity And cardiovascular disease Occupation Exposure and/or abuse of drugs .
worldofteaching.com http://www. This is a completely free site and requires no registration.worldofteaching. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. .
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