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# Master in Advanced Power Electrical Engineering

Copyright 2005
Techno-economic
aspects of power systems
Ronnie Belmans
Dirk Van Hertem
Stijn Cole
Copyright 2005 2008
Overview
Lesson 1: Liberalization
Lesson 2: Players, Functions and Tasks
Lesson 3: Markets
Lesson 4: Present generation park
Lesson 5: Future generation park
Lesson 6: Introduction to power systems
Lesson 7: Power system analysis and control
Lesson 8: Power system dynamics and security
Lesson 9: Future grid technologies: FACTS and
HVDC
Lesson 10: Distributed generation
Copyright 2005 2008
Outline
Power system analysis and control
Power system analysis
Power flow
Optimal power flow
Power flow control
Primary control
Secondary control
Tertiary control
Voltage control

Copyright 2005 2008
Control of active and reactive power
Voltage regulation
Voltage between sender and receiver

Voltage related to reactive power:
Angle related to active power:

*
R
R R R R
S U I P j Q = = +
R
R
Q
U
X
U ~ A
R
R
P
U
X
~
2
o
Sender
Receiver
X j R +
S S
P j Q +
R R
P j Q +
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Power flow
Normal conditions ==> steady state (equilibrium)
Basis calculations to obtain this state are called Power Flow
Also called Load Flow
Purpose of power flow:
Determine steady state situation of the grid
Get values for P, Q, U and voltage angle
Calculate system losses
First step for
o N-1 contingency study
o Congestion analysis
o Need for redispatch
o System development
o Stability studies
o ...

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N-1
Example
Each line has capacity of 900 MW
Equal, lossless lines between nodes
P = 843 MW
G G
Load = 1500 MW
P = 666 MW
P = 166 MW
Load = 500 MW
P = 1500 MW
G G
Load = 1500 MW
P = 0 MW
P = 500 MW
Load = 500 MW
P = 1000 MW P = 1000 MW P = 1000 MW P = 1000 MW
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Congestion and redispatch
Example
Each line has capacity of 900 MW
Equal, lossless lines between nodes
The right generator is cheaper than the left, both have capacity 1500
MW
P = 843 MW
G G
Load = 1500 MW
P = 666 MW
P = 166 MW
Load = 500 MW
P = 900 MW
congested
G G
Load = 1500 MW
P = 500 MW
P = 200 MW
Load = 500 MW
P = 1000 MW P = 1000 MW
P = 1200 MW P = 800 MW
If the load of gen B would increase, the profit
would rise, but the line is congested
B
A B
A
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Power flow
Three types of nodes
Voltage controlled nodes (P-U node)
Nodes connected to a generator
Voltage is controlled at a fixed value
Active power delivered at a known
value
Unregulated voltage node (P-Q node)
A certain P and Q is demanded or
delivered (non dispatched power
plants, e.g. CHP)
In practice: mostly nodes representing
a pure `load'
Slack or swing bus (U-o node)
Variable P and Q
Node that takes up mismatches

G
G
G
G
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Power flow
Assumptions and representation
Properties are not influenced by small changes in voltage or
frequency
Linear, localized parameters
Balanced system
==> Single line representation
Loads represented by their P and Q values
Current and power flowing to the node is positive
Transmission lines and transformers: t-equivalent

I
s
I
r
1
1
2
1 1
1 1
4 2
s r
s r
YZ Z
V V
I I
Y YZ YZ
(
+
(
( (
(
=
( (
| |
(

+ +
|
(
\ .

Y/2

Y/2

Z

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Power Flow
Equations
I=Y.V is a set of (complex) linear equations
But P and Q are needed ==> S=V.I*
Set of non-linear equations

( ) ( ) | | { }
( ) ( ) | | { }
2
cos sin
2
sin cos
0
0
k Gk Lk
V G V V G B
k kk k m km k m km k m
k Gk Lk
V B V V G B
k kk k m km k m km k m
P P P
Q Q Q
u u u u
u u u u
+ +
+
A =
=
A =
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 i
i
i
i
J K
P P
V
P
V
V
Q Q Q
V
V
V
u
u
u

c c
(
A
(
(
A
(
c c
(
=
(
A
(
(
A c c

(

(
c c
Copyright 2005 2008
Power flow
Newton-Raphson
Newton-Raphson has a quadratic convergence
Normally +/- 7 iterations needed
Principle Newton-Raphson iterative method:

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Power Flow
Alternative methods
Gauss-Seidel
Old method (solves I=Y.V), not used anymore
Linear convergence
Decoupled Newton-Raphson
Strong coupling between Q and V, and between P and o
Weak coupling between P and V, and between Q and o
==> 2 smaller systems to solve ==> faster (2-3 times faster)
( ) i
i
i
V
V
V
V
Q
P
Q
P
(
(

A
A

(
(
(

c
c
c
c
=
(

A
A
u
u
) (
) (
0
0
Copyright 2005 2008
Power Flow
Alternative methods (II)
Fast decoupled Newton-Raphson
Neglects coupling as in decoupled Newton-Raphson
Approximation: Jacobian considered constant
Newton-Raphson with convergence parameter
Step in right direction (first order) multiplied by factor
DC load flow
Consider only B (not Y)
Single calculation (no iterations needed)
Very fast ==> 7-10 times faster than normal Newton-Raphson
In high voltage grids: 1 pu
Sometimes used as first value for Newton-Raphson iteration
(starting value)
Economic studies and contingency analysis also use DC load
flow

Copyright 2005 2008
Power flow:
Available computer tools
Available programs:
PSS/E (Siemens)
DigSILENT (power factory)
Eurostag (tractebel)
ETAP
Powerworld (demo version available for
download)
Matpower (free download, matlab based)
PSAT: power system analysis toolbox (free
download, matlab based)
...
Copyright 2005 2008
Optimal power flow (OPF)
Optimal power flow = power flow with a goal
Optimizing for highest objective
Minimum losses
Economic dispatch (cheapest generation)
...
Problem formulation
minimize F(x, u, p)
Objective function
subject to g(x, u, p) = 0
Constraints
Build the Lagrangian function
L = F(x, u, p) +
T
g(x, u, p)
Other optimization algorithms can also be used

Copyright 2005 2008
Optimal power flow
Flow chart
Estimate control parameters
Solve Normal Load Flow
Compute the gradient of control variables
Adjust control
parameters
Terminate process, solution
reached
Check if gradient is
sufficiently small
Copyright 2005 2008
Optimal power flow
Example
max
Directional First-order
Iter F-count f(x) constraint Step-size derivative optimality

0 1 4570.1 1.63
1 3 9656.06 0.3196 1 1.35e+004
5.28e+003
2 6 7345.79 0.2431 0.5 506 1.98e+003
3 9 5212.76 0.1449 0.5 1.41e+003 4.32e+004
4 11 5384.17 0.02825 1 367 2.83e+003
5 14 5305.59 0.08544 0.5 -132 696
6 17 5439.61 0.07677 0.5 958 859
7 19 5328.32 0.08351 1 144 1.04e+003
8 22 5267.51 0.1398 0.5 -82.7 730
9 24 5301.72 0.05758 1 63.8 282
10 26 5300.88 0.004961 1 17.3 406
11 28 5295.95 0.003562 1 -0.325 116
12 30 5296.69 4.436e-005 1 1.15 30.8
13 32 5296.69 8.402e-007 1 0.0222 4.99
14 34 5296.69 4.487e-009 1 0.000728 0.431
15 36 5296.69 3.16e-011 1 2.75e-006 0.0113
Copyright 2005 2008
Outline
Power system analysis and control
Power system analysis
Power flow
Optimal power flow
Power flow control
Primary control
Secondary control
Tertiary control
Voltage control

Copyright 2005 2008
Control problem

Complex MIMO system
Thousands of nodes
Voltage and angle on each node
Power flows through the lines (P and Q)
Generated power (P and Q), and voltage
OLTC positions
...
Not everything is known!
o Not every flow is known
o Local or global control
o Cross-border information
o Output of power plants
o Metering equipment is not always available or correct

Copyright 2005 2008
Control problem
Requirements
Voltage must remain between its limits
1 p.u. +/- 5 or 10 %
Power flow through a line is limited
Thermal limit depending on section
Frequency has to remain between strict limits
Economic optimum

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Control problem
Assumptions
P-f control and Q-U control can be separated

Voltage control is independent for each
voltage controlled node
Global system can be divided in control areas
Control area = region of generators that
experience the same frequency perturbation

Q V P f
t t

<<
fi A
Copyright 2005 2008
Control problem
Separation of the problem
P-f control

Using feedback:
o results in

Q-U control
Measuring
Control signal , generator
excitation and static Var compensation
(capacitors or power electronics)

i transfered i
f and P phase fault o A A A =
i
o A
i c
P
,
A
i
U V A
i c
Q
,
A
Copyright 2005 2008
Turbine Generator control
Copyright 2005 2008
Why frequency control?
Uncontrolled power variations affect machine speed
Frequency has to remain between very strict limits

Consumed 2
P
Produced
Consumed
f
1
2
3
1. Start
2. P_consumed2 <
P_consumed1
3. P_produced >
P_consumed
acceleration

Copyright 2005 2008
Why frequency control?
Uncontrolled power variations affect machine speed
Frequency has to remain between very strict limits

Consumed 2
P
Produced
Consumed
f
1
2
3
1. Start
2. P_consumed2 <
P_consumed1
3. P_produced >
P_consumed
acceleration (delta
f)
4. Production has to
be reduced (control
action)

Produced2
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Frequency control
Different control actions
4 Phases
Primary control
o maintains the balance between generation and demand in the network using
turbine speed governors. (tens of seconds)
Secondary control
o centralised automatic function to regulate the generation in a control area
based on secondary control reserves in order to
maintain its interchange power flow at the control program with all other
control areas
restore the frequency in case of a frequency deviation originating from the
control area to its set value in order to free the capacity engaged by the
primary control. (15 min)
Tertiary control
o any (automatic or) manual change in the working points of generators
(mainly by re-scheduling), in order to restore an adequate secondary control
reserve at the right time. (after 15 min)
Time control
o integral control of the system time regarding UTC time, days
Internationally controlled (UCTE, Nordel, a nd others)
Operation handbook:
http://www.ucte.org/publications/ophandbook/
Copyright 2005 2008
UCTE
Copyright 2005 2008
Primary control
Grid characteristics
Statism:

In %, typically 4 to 5 %
Highest droop = largest contribution

Network stiffness
Also called `Network power frequency characteristic'
Includes self regulating effect (D) and influence of the feedback
control (K=1/R)

Gn G
G
P P
fn f
S
/
/
A
A
=
f
P
G
A
A
=

D
R
+ =
1

## Copyright 2005 2008

Primary control
principle
Balancing generation and demand in a synchronous
zone
Device is called `governor'
Maximum allowed dynamic frequency deviation: 800
mHz
Maximum allowed absolute frequency deviation: 200
mHz

Copyright 2005 2008
Primary control
principle
Variations in the generating output of two generators
Different droop
Under equilibrium conditions
Identical primary control reserves

Copyright 2005 2008
Primary control
Principle (II)
When , a part of the load is shed
Basic principle: P-control feedback to counter power fluctuations
Primary control uses spinning reserves
Each control area within the synchronous area (UCTE) has
to maintain a certain reserve, so that the absolute frequency
shift in case of a 3 GW power deviation remains below 200
mHz
3 GW are two of the largest units within UCTE
If is too high ==> islanding

Hz f 1 > A
t
f A
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Secondary control
Definition/principle
System frequency is brought back to the scheduled value
Balance between generation and consumption within each area
Primary control is not impaired
Centralized `automatic generation control' adjusts set points
Power sources are called secondary reserves
PI controlled:

}
e e = A dt
T
K P
di
sec
1
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Primary and secondary control
Example
C: X MW
P: X MW
P: Y MW
50 Hz
50 Hz
C: Y MW
0 MW
pre-fault
Copyright 2005 2008
Primary and secondary control
Example (II)
C: X MW
P: X MW
P: Y MW
49,8 Hz
49,8 Hz
500 MW
C: Y+1000 MW
Initial
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Primary and secondary control
Example (III)
C: X MW
500 MW
C: Y+1000 MW
primary control 49,9 Hz
49,9 Hz
P: X + 250 MW
P: Y +250 MW
Copyright 2005 2008
Primary and secondary control
Example (IV)
C: X MW
C: Y+1000 MW
P: X + 250 MW
G
P: Y +250 + A MW
+A MW
49,9+ Hz
49,9+ Hz Secondary control
500 - A/2 MW
Copyright 2005 2008
Primary and secondary control
Example (V)
C: X MW
C: Y+1000 MW
P: X + 250 MW
G

50,1 Hz
50,1 Hz
0 MW
P: Y + 1250 MW
+1000 MW
End secondary control
Copyright 2005 2008
Primary and secondary control
Example (VI)
C: X MW
C: Y+1000 MW

0 MW
50 Hz
P: X MW
P: Y + 1000 MW
50 Hz
Second primary control
This phase happens simultaneously with the secondary control,
and the 50.1 Hz in reality doesn't occur
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Tertiary control
Definition
Automatic or manual set point change of
generators and/or loads in order to:
Guarantee secondary reserves
Obtain best power generation scheme in terms of
economic considerations
o Cheap units (low marginal cost such as combined cycle or
nuclear)
o Highest security/stability
o Loss minimalization
o ...
How?
Redispatching of power generation
Redistributing output of generators participating
in secondary control
Change power exchange with other areas
Load control (shedding)

Copyright 2005 2008
Sequence overview
Copyright 2005 2008
Time control
Limit discrepancies between synchronous
time and universal time co-ordinated (UTC)
within the synchronous zone
Time difference limits (defined by UCTE)
Tolerated discrepancy: +/- 20 s
Maximum allowed discrepancy under
normal conditions: +/- 30 s
Exceptional range: +/- 60 s

Sometimes `played' with (week
weekend)

( ) s dt t f 20 < A
}
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Voltage control
Voltage at busbar:
Voltage is mainly controlled by reactive power
Can be regulated through excitation, tap changers,
capacitors, SVC, ...
Reactive power has a local nature

Copyright 2005 2008
Voltage control
Can the same control mechanism be used?
YES
But
Good (sensitive) Q-production has to be available
o Synchronous compensator: expensive
o Capacitors: not accurate enough
o SVC/STATCom: possible, but not cheap
U is `OK' between 0,95 and 1,05 p.u.
Reactive power is less price (fuel) dependent (some
losses)

Voltage is locally controlled

Copyright 2005 2008
Voltage control
Control scheme
Automatic voltage regulator (e.g. IEEE AVR 1)

Copyright 2005 2008
Conclusions
Power flow analysis
Performed through iterative method (Newton-
Raphson)
Basis for many power system studies
Optimal power flow
Power flow control happens in several
independent stages
Inter-area ties make the grid more reliable
Voltage control is independent of power
(frequency) control

Copyright 2005 2008
References
Power System Stability and control, Prabha
Kundur,1994, McGraw-Hill
Operation handbook UCTE,
http://www.ucte.org/ohb/cur_status.asp
Power system dynamics: stability and control, K.
Padiyar, Ansham, 2004
Power system analysis, Grainger and Stevenson
Power system control and stability, 2
nd
ed.,
Andersson and Fouad
Dynamics and Control of Electric Power Systems,
Goran Andersson