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By, Tosh Kumar 0412210054 CS,4th year

RFID-What it is?
• Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. • RFID (radio frequency identification) is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person. • An alternative to bar code. • RFID is also called dedicated short range communication (DSRC).

• Invented in 1948 by Harry Stockman. not the kind of plane it was. RADAR was only able to signal the presence of a plane. • Came into commercial use only in 1990s. . • Initial application was during World War II-The United Kingdom used RFID devices to distinguish returning English airplanes from inbound German ones..

Components of RFID .

Components of RFID(cont’d) .

• Collision Detection – recognition of multiple tags in the read range – is employed to separately read the individual tags . and a small chip that stores a small amount of data • Tag can be programmed at manufacture or on installation • Tag is powered by the high power electromagnetic field generated by the antennas – usually in doorways • The field allows the chip/antenna to reflect back an extremely weak signal containing the data.Passive RFID Tags • Tag contains an antenna.

GPS – Can signal at defined time – Multiple tags can be recorded at once • Used for higher value items – Shipping containers – Babies – Electronic assets • Cost between $20 and $40 per item • Life between 2 – 4 years .Active RFID Tags • Battery Powered tags – Have much greater range – 100m – Hold much more information – Kbytes – Can integrate sensing technology • Temperature.

usually less Tag Battery Availability of power Required signal strength to Tag Range Yes Continuous Very Low Up to 100m Multi-tag reading 1000’s of tags recognized – up to 100mph Up to 128Kb or read/write with sophisticated search and access Few hundred within 3m of reader 128 bytes of read/write Data Storage .Components of RFID(cont’d) Active RFID Tag Power Source Internal to tag Passive RFID Energy transferred using RF from reader No Only in field of reader Very High Up to 3-5m.

Components of RFID(cont’d) .

• E.23000. 613.123456789 (96 bits) • Header – defines version of EPC(8 bits) • EPC Manager – describes originator of EPC (Product manufacturer) (28 bits) • Object Class .123456.g.Could describe the product type (24 Bits) • Serial Number – Unique ID for that product item (36 Bits) .Electronic product code-EPC • Each tag contains a unique code that facilitating the identification process & is known as EPC.

System overview .

Tag 20 cents a piece) Can be reusable within factory premises Can read only one tag at a time Cannot be reused . No need Scanner needs to see the bar to bring the tag near the code to read it reader RFID is comparatively fast Can read multiple tags Relatively expensive as compared to Bar Codes (Reader 1000$.RFID Vs Bar Code RFID Forging is difficult Barcode Forging is easy Scanner not required.

Benefits of RFID .

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time taken=80 sec to 20 min • 1999->With RFID it takes 20 seconds. • Previously->Using Bar Code.• Gillette & Co: • Objective: To Track movement of product from Packaging Center to Plant’s distribution center. . • Gains->Gillette saves 20% in Operational Cost at each Distribution Center.

Issues / Concerns .

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Australia. Finland. . Large Retail companies – Product Tracking. • Replacing Barcodes. food quality. movement. Security Applications – Contactless Smart Cards. RFID Sensors to sense temperature. radiation. Ireland. • RFID is used in Libraries. • Passports-UK. RFID Readers could also WRITE onto Tags. Airports – Baggage Tracking.Uses of RFID • • • • • • • Used where unique identification is needed. Hospitals & Nursing Homes – Patient Tagging .

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Buses inside the BEL campus were tracked with the aim of gauging employee punctuality.Setting up a lab to study RFID .Working on pilot projects • Infosys Technologies – RFID consulting on logistics player in the RFID space. • TCS have tied up with Hyderabad university to produce RFID tagged mark sheets & degrees to deter use of fake degree.Member of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) . .Initiatives in RFID • Patni Computer Systems Lab – Implemented Animal Tracking System • Wipro Technologies . tags installed on employee buses. • Intellicon .pilot project for BEL Bangalore.