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Aluísio de Azevedo (1857 – 1913)

• The author is the son of a Portuguese Consul. • He was a cartunist before being a writer (he •

had the habit, before writing his novels, drawing and painting on cardboard, the main characters keeping them on his desk while writing) He joined the journalistic career writing for newspapers, including one called "The Thinker." The latter tended to discuss social problems such as racism and criticize against the clergy.

The author died in Buenos Aires when held the position of consular agent in this city. career when he became a diplomat in 1895." which would give him the title of "precursor of naturalism in Brazil. his most prominent naturalist • Aluisio Azevedo abandoned his literary . 1913. prostitutes and the others excluded from society. • However.• In 1881 he published the book "The Mulatto. washerwomen. The characters in this narrative are laborers.“ novel is: O cortiço. on January 21.

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• Decay of the Second Empire • Strengthening of Historical Context • • Republican and abolitionist movements Development of press organizations ABL Foundation (1897): officialization of national literature .

whose corruption and influence he denounced.• Published in 1881 General Overview • The Mulatto reveals its author's opposition to both the clergy. naturalist novel • Considered the first Brazilian . and the racist agrarian society still dependent upon slavery.

and filth. naturalistic writers were frequently criticized for focusing too much on human vice and misery. heredity. prostitution. corruption. prejudice. disease. life. racism. violence. and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character. As a result. including poverty.Naturalism • Naturalism was a literary movement taking place from the 1880s to 1940s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions. • Naturalistic works exposed the dark harshness of .

and a series of Naturalism in The Mulatto characters that always slip for immoral and grotesque Anti-clericalism designed in the figure of a priest Diogo as immoral. because in the end. The sexual aspect referred in relation to the carnal passion by Ana Rosa and Raimundo The triumph of evil. the crimes go unpunished and criminals are gratified. and assassin.• A social critique through the merciless satire of the types of Sao Luis • The murderer priest. hypocritical. • • • .

returns to Maranhão. He falls in love his cousin. but the romance is prohibited by his uncle. Ana Rosa. who marries Ana Rosa. . Raimundo is killed by Luis Dias. son of a slave and a farmer. raised in Europe. where he suffers strong prejudice.Plot • Raimundo.

Maranhão .São Luís.

who was not seen with good eyes. Aluísio Azevedo." The mood in the city was so bad for the author that he decided to return to Rio de Janeiro. became the “Devil of the city".Criticism • At the time. • The editor of the newspaper Civilização advised . the work was badly received by the Maranhense society. Aluísio to "get a hoe instead of keep writing.

São Luís .

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“Azevedo's use of geographical determinism provides a possible explanation: those who have lived in Maranhão for some period of time have suffered from the effects of its climate. This emphasis on the negative effects of the tropical climate on human behavior tempts one to view Maranhão as if the region were the true protagonist of the novel.” ( Marchant 5) .

com/watch?v=9Vf_iuyQ7Lg •Raimundo •Ana Rosa •Conêgo Dias •Luís Dias •Manuel Pescada .Characters http://www.youtube.

Kept in ignorance the identity of his mother and the secret of his mixed birth. Raimundo is educated in Europe and. .Raimundo • A young Brazilian of liberal ideas. upon returning to Brazil. struggles against the provincial and bigoted society he encounters.

represents the nostalgia of the maranhenses and their drive to at least preserve the social status quo. daughter of Manuel Pescada. “Ana Rosa. like the other white female characters in the novel.” (Marchant 6) .Ana Rosa • Cousin and lover of Raimundo.

liar and murderer.Canon Dias • Villian. “Marotti has contrasted the "good" Raimundo with the "evil" Canon Diogo” (Marchant 7) . fornicator. Evil.

Manuel Pescada. .employee of Manuel Pescada.Luís Dias. strong and hardworking. who by the instigation of Canon ended up murdering Raimundo.a Portuguese man of about fifty. He prohibits his nephew’s marriage with his daughter.

•Social and Themes historical determinism •Anticlericalism • Criticism to racial prejudice .

” (Marchant 5) . However. the metaphorical use of his blue eyes suggests that Raimundo has enlightenment and reason on his side. as a slave.Symbol – Raimundo’s Blue Eyes “…he is born at the base of society.

condemning slavery and offering a whitening solution”? (8) .Question Do you agree with Marchant’s argument that “Azevedo suggests a way out of Brazil's dilemma of racial inferiority.

com/doc/98990849/O-Mulato-Capa http://www.Sources • • • • • http://www.com/literatura/aluisio-azevedo.scribd.com/watch?v=9Vf_iuyQ7Lg http://en.encyclopedia.wikipedia.brasilescola.youtube.org/wiki/Determinism http://www.htm http://www.com/doc/1G2-3045301642.html .