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A MECHANISM FOR SURFACE MODIFICATION USING MACHINE HAMMER PEENING TECHNOLOGY

PRESENTED BY :
ANWAR SADATH M A ROLL NO : 4 S1 MTECH P.E GEC THRISSUR

INTRODUCTION
The need for improved surface integrity and enhanced functional performance of manufactured components is a very important factor in modern day manufacturing process. Which has acted as a driving force in the development of new production methods and high performance surface treatment methodologies. Induction of compressive residual stresses and the hardness increase of the upper surface layer of the metal are also an important factor in surface treatment

SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES


Direct Process
Surface Modification by the direct result of the process itself is called directly operating processes Ex: Shot Peening , roller burnishing, Machine Hammer Peenig etc.

Indirect Process
Indirect processes are based on the creation and induction of shock waves to modify the material properties. Ex: Laser Shock Peening, Ultrasonic impact treatment etc

SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES


Direct Process
Shot Peening
Shot peening is a cold working process in which the surface of the material is bombarded with small spherical media called shot.

Roller Burnishing
Roller Burnishing is a process by which a smooth hard tool (using sufficient pressure) is rubbed on the metal surface. This process flattens the high spots by causing plastic flow of the metal.

SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES


In Direct Process
Indirect processes are based on the creation and induction of shock waves to modify the material properties. Example: Laser Shock Peening, Ultrasonic impact treatment etc

LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY

LP is a surface enhancement technique for metallic components that uses the shock wave generation capability of lasers to induce favorable residual stresses. Apart from improving fatigue life, LP has also been applied to improve fretting and corrosion properties.

A higher depth of compressive residual stress and a lower cold-work amplitude are obtained from the LP treatment.

LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY

The component surface to be peened is coated with a opaque material and covered with a transparent overlay. When the component is ready for peening, a high energy laser is fired on the prepared surface. The laser passes through the transparent layer and causes the opaque overlay to vaporize and then convert into plasma when it absorbs more energy. As the vapor continues to absorb the laser energy, it expands. As the confined plasma expands, it generates a high pressure, short duration shock wave then travels into the base material and the water.

LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY

The presence of water tends to confine the energy and increase the intensity of the pressure pulse in the component. Depending upon the magnitude of the pressure wave in the base metal, this can cause elastic and plastic deformation. This deformation generates compressive and tensile residual stresses.

LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY

Schematic of Laser Peening process

LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY


Residual Stress Generation The complicated interactions between different waves inside the material produce compressive and tensile stress regions. The compressive stress dominates in the top region of the component. Below this compressive stress region, there is a tensile stress region. The magnitude of the tensile stress is less than that of the compressive stress. Above the elastic limit, pressure causes the surface layer of the target to expand beyond the elastic limit. Depending upon the magnitude of the pressure, the layer below the surface layer also expands, but within the elastic limit.

LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY


Residual Stress Generation

LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY


The LP process requires a laser with high power (100 to 1000 watts), moderate frequency (10 to 50 shots per minute), and high laser pulse energy (100 Jules) for suitable industrial applications. Opaque overlay Augmenting the creation of plasma and providing protection of the component surface to be peened from high temperature. Black paint, aluminum, zinc or copper and organic coating are used commonly

LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY

Transparent Overlay When a dielectric material, transparent to laser light, is placed over the opaque overlay, plasma created by LP is trapped between the component and the transparent overlay. This trapping increases the pressure pulse magnitude compared to a direct ablation mode. water is used most often for the overlay because of ease of availability and handling.

WARM LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY


It has been found that the residual stress generated by LSP is not stable, especially at higher temperatures. At higher temperatures the residual stress degrades through dislocation movement. Dynamic strain aging (DSA) have been used to reduce dislocation movement. Through DSA, WLSP increases the dislocation density and stabilizes the dislocation structure by pinning of mobile dislocations by carbon atoms.

WARM LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY


DSA typically occurs at elevated temperature. For example,
the DSA temperature of aluminum alloy is from 150 to 250 oC; the DSA temperature of carbon is from 100 to 300 oC.

So in WLSP, the LSP process is carried out while pre-heating the target samples to elevated temperature. WLSP causes Dynamic precipitation (DP) which generates highly dense nanoscale precipitate particles, which improves material strength, and stabilizes the compressive residual stress

WARM LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY

Hardness comparison between RT-LSP and WLSP in 4140 steel

THERMAL ENGINEERED LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY

A further study to optimize the surface strength and fatigue performance of metallic materials leads to a new method. Thermal engineered laser shock peening (LSP) is a technique combining Warm Laser Shock Peening (WLSP) with subsequent post-shock tempering treatment.

THERMAL ENGINEERED LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY


Post-shock tempering treatment is carried out by heating the piece to a high temperature, though below the critical point, then cooling it, usually in air The process has the effect of toughening by lessening brittleness and reducing internal stresses. Suitable temperatures for tempering vary considerably, depending on the type of steel and designed application; for tool steels, the hardness of which must be retained, the range is usually from 200 to 250 C

THERMAL ENGINEERED LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY


The effect of tempering time on the hardness of 4140 steel is given below

Surface hardness affected by pre- and post-shock tempering at various tempering times (laser intensity 3 GW cm2, tempering temperature 450 C).

THERMAL ENGINEERED LASER SHOCK PEENING TECHNOLOGY


The effect of tempering temperature and time on the hardness of 4140 steel is given below

Surface hardness affected by the post-shock tempering temperature at various tempering times (laser intensity 3 GW cm2).

CONCLUSION
This paper presents the description of Thermal Engineered Laser Peening Technology, and results of some experimental tests based on TELP.

Hence, the technology of Thermal Engineered Laser Peening Technology offers various application opportunities in the fields of surface modification of materials.

REFERENCES
1. YL Liao, S. Suslov, Chang Ye, GJ Cheng, 2012, the Mechanisms of Thermal Engineered Laser Shock Peening for Enhanced Fatigue Performance, Acta Materialia, 2012, v 60, n 13-14: 4997. 2. Y Liao, Chang Ye, H Gao, S Suslov, E.A. Stach, GJ Cheng, 2011, "Dislocation pinning effects induced by nano-precipitates during warm laser shock peening: dislocation dynamic simulation and experiments", Journal of Applied Physics, 2011; 110: 023518. 3. Montross CS, Wei T, Ye L, Clark G, Mai YW (2002) Laser Shock Processing and its Effects on Microstructure and Properties of Metal Alloys: A Review. International Journal of Fatigue 24:10211036.

4. Odhiambo D, Soyama H (2003) Cavitation Shotless Peening for Improvement of Fatigue Strength of Carbonized Steel. International Journal of Fatigue 25: 12171222.
5. Chang Ye, S Suslov, BJ Kim, E.A. Stach, GJ Cheng, 2011, Fatigue Performance Improvement by Dynamic Strain Aging and Dynamic Precipitation in Warm Laser Shock Peening of AISI 4140 steel, Acta Materialia. v 59, n 3, p 1014-1025, February 2011

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