PIPING MATERIAL

MODULAR FABRICATION YARD PIPING MODULE – PART II

INTRODUCTION
Piping Materials can be classified as

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Metals (ferrous) : CS, SS, Alloy Steel Metals (non-ferrous) : Cupro Nickel, Al Non-metals : PVC, cement, glass Materials are selected based on their mechanical and metallurgical properties. Mechanical properties: strength, ductility, hardness, brittleness, toughness Metallurgical properties: Chemical composition, weldability

CARBON STEEL
Low Carbon Steel : C < 0.15% Condenser Tubes : SA 179 Weldability : Excellent
: 0.15% < C < 0.30% Pipes : SA 106 GR B Weldability: Good

Mild Steel

CARBON STEEL
Medium Carbon Steel : 0.3% < C < 0.5% Machinery Parts Weldability: Fair High Carbon Steel : 0.5% < C < 1% Dies & punch, Tools Weldability: Poor  Steel : Carbon < 2%  Cast Iron : Carbon > 2%

weldability decreases  Effect of carbon & other elements on the weldability of carbon steels can be estimated by equating them to an equivalent amount of carbon.  Carbon Equivalent: Ceq  = C + Mn/6 + Cr + Mo+ V + Cu + Ni 5 15 Killed Steel During Steel making process oxygen present is removed by adding Silica (De oxidizing agent). .Weldability  As Carbon % increases .

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Molybdenum  . Nickel. toughness Steel is a ferrous alloy having main constituent Iron and other alloying elements / Impurities like Carbon. Chromium. Silicon.ALLOY STEEL  Addition of elements such as Cromium. corrosion resistance. Molybdenum. Sulfur. Silicon along with heat treatment improves the properties of steels such as mechanical strength. Phosphorus. Manganese. Manganese. Nickel.

ALLOY STEEL Solid solubility in ferrous alloys : Interstitial solid solution : Carbon with Iron forms interstitial solid solution (Carbon steel) Substitutional solid solution : Cromium and Nickel with iron forms Substitutional solid solution (Stainless steel) Low alloy steels : Alloying elements < 5% High alloy steels : Alloying elements > 5%. .

Stainless steel has excellent resistant to corrosion. This can be chromium oxide (Cr2O3) film that acts as a barrier protecting metal against corrosion. Molybdenum etc is called stainless steel.STAINLESS STEEL    Alloy of iron with Cromium content more than 11% and less than 30% and other alloying elements Nickel. Stainless steel becomes corrosion resistant (passive) because of formation of un-reactive film which adheres tightly to the surface of metal. .

Copper : Increases resistance to sulphuric acid.EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS Chromium Nickel : Increases resistance to Oxidation. produces tightly adhering high temperature oxides. Molybdenum: Increases resistance to chloride. Titanium : Stabilize carbides to prevent formation of chromium carbide Niobium : Stabilize carbides to prevent formation of chromium carbide . : Increases resistance to mineral acid.

steels.= not characteristic or unknown Several arrows =more intensive effect SCALING .steels ↑ ↑ ↑ • • – ↑ ↓↓ – ↓↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Nickel in austennit.steels ↓↓ ↑ ↓ ↑↑↑ ↑↑↑ – ↑↑↑ ↓↓ – – ↓↓↓ ↓↓↓ ↓↓ Aluminum – – – – ↓ – – – – – ↓↓ – ↓↓ Tungsten ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ • – ↑↑↑ ↓↓ ↑↑ ↑↑↑ ↓↓ ↓↓ ↓↓ Vanadium ↑ ↑ ↑ • ↑ ↑ ↑↑ ↓↓ ↑↑↑↑ ↑↑ ↑ – ↓ Cobalt ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ – ↑↑ ↑↑ – ↑↑↑ ↓ • ↓ Molybdenum ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ – ↑↑ ↓↓ ↑↑↑ ↑↑ ↓ ↓ ↑↑ Copper ↑ ↑ ↑↑ • • – ↑ – – – ↓↓↓ • • Sulphur – – – ↓ ↓ – – – – – ↓↓↓ ↑↑↑ – Phosphorous ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓↓↓ – – – – – ↓ ↑↑ – ↑=Increase ↓=Decrease • = constant .steels ↑ ↑ ↑ • • ↑ • ↓ • ↓↓ ↑ ↓ • Manganese in austenit. ↓↓↓ ↑ ↓ ↑↑↑ – – – ↓↓ – – ↓↓↓ ↓↓↓ ↓↓ Chromium ↑↑ ↑↑ ↑↑ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↓↓↓ ↑↑ ↑ ↓ – ↓↓↓ Nickel in perlit.MACHINABILITY RESISTANCE TO WEAR THE EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF STEEL FORGEABILITY COOLING RATE HIGH TEMPERATURE STABLITY IMPACT VALUE ELONGATION YIELD POINT CARBIDE FORMATION ELASTICITY STRENGTH ALLOYING ELEMENT HARDNESS Silicon ↑ ↑ ↑↑ ↓ ↓ ↑↑↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓↓↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Manganese in perlit.

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Metallurgical Microstructure 3. Degree of sensitization . Alloying Constituents 2.STAINLESS STEEL Classification based on 1.

Ni .Mn group ( Mn replaces a portion of Ni) : Cr .Ni group 300 Series 400 Series : Straight Chromium Group ( Cr < 30%) .STAINLESS STEEL Alloying constituents 200 Series : Cr.

316L . Austenitic SS: Alloy of Cr.STAINLESS STEEL Metallurgical microstructure. 304L. Fe Non Magnetic High Corrosion resistance at temp up to 1500F Hardenable by cold working Crystallographic form-Face centered Cubic lattice (fine grain structure) Possess high impact strength at low temp Ex: Type 304. Ni.316.

430. therefore brittle & relatively poor corrosion resistance  Has resistance to chlorides stress corrosion cracking  Ex: Type 409.STAINLESS STEEL Ferritic SS:  Alloy of Cr. 439 .Body centered cubic lattice (coarse grain structure)  For marine application.5% Cr alloy with no nickel)  Contains high carbon. (10. Fe  Magnetic  Non Hardenable by heat treatment  Crystallographic form.

.  High hardness (carbon added to the alloy)  Corrosion resistant  Heat treatable to high hardness level  Crystallographic form-distorted lattice  Type 410.420.STAINLESS STEEL Martensitic SS.

17-4PH .STAINLESS STEEL Precipitation Hardened SS  Magnetic  Heat treatable to high strength.  Weldable and corrosion resistant similar to type 304  Ex:-17-7PH.

High strength.Resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking. Good corrosion resistance Ex: Alloy 2205. Alloy 255 .STAINLESS STEEL Duplex SS      Contain both Austenite & Ferrite in microstructure. When ferrite. When Austenite-Sensation to chloride stress corrosion cracking. Ni (4 to 7%).

STAINLESS STEEL 3. (During welding.309. They are susceptible to sensitization. flame cutting) . Degree of sensitization of grain boundaries GROUP 1 SS grade 304.310.316.

(Because Titanium or Columbium forms carbides first). Hence Type 347 is superior to 321 .STAINLESS STEEL GROUP 2  Stabilized stainless steel type 321 &347  Grain boundaries sensitization eliminated by alloying elements like Titanium or Columbium.  Columbium (Type 347) is stronger stabilizing agent than Ti (Type 321).

welded & cooled slowly without significantly increasing their susceptibility to IGC. 316L  Can be stress relieved. .STAINLESS STEEL GROUP 3  Extra low carbon stainless steel Type 304L.

000 29.000 29.000.603 S 43.PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL ALLOYS ALLOYS 1) Austenitic SS Type 304 Type 304L Type 316 Type 316 L 2) Ferritic SS Type 430 Type 439 Type 409 3) Duplex SS Alloy 2205 70 Mo Plus Alloy 255 4) Martensitic SS Type 410 Type 420 Type 440L 5) Precipitatim SS 17.90.10.000 90.000 1.500 UTS (PSI) 75.20.000.403 S 31.000 1.000 2.000 2.50.000 75.10.000 30.000 65.000.4 PH Custom 455 UNS NO S 30.000 29.000 25.000 29.90.000 2.000 28.035 S 40.000.600 S 31.000 30.000 S 43.000 80 RB 75 RB 80 RB 75 RB 85 RB 90 RB 85 RB 30 RC 30 RC 32 RC 41 RC 55 RC 60 RC 48 RC 45 RC 48 RC 60.000.90.70.000 S 42.000 29.30.000 2.000 29.900 S 31.550 S 41.000 YS Elongation MODULUS OF HARDNESS ( PSI) (%) min ELASTICITY 30.000 1.000.000 1.000 30.000 32.000.000 S 44.500.000 2.400 S 45.000 1.000 80.000 70.000 .000 70.000.000.000.700 S 17.000 55.000 90.000.000.000 30 35 30 35 20 20 20 25 20 15 15 5 2 5 8 10 29.000 2.00.000 2.40.000 1.000 70.000 30.70.000 29.950 S 32.000.000 30.80.400 S 30.000 29.7 PH 17.000 28.000 29.000 28.000.050 S 17.805 S 32.500.000 25.000 60.000 29.

and Mechanical Properties. .e. ASME. in different codes i. manufacturing processes. and common UNS number ASTM Standard gives various details of materials like manufacturing process. DIN. ASME Code accepts the ASTM materials with some additional specified properties.ASTM / ASME Nomenclature    Materials are listed based on their known chemical composition. mechanical strength etc. Chemical Composition. MSS etc. Grades.ASTM.

GR : Grade.ASTM / ASME Nomenclature SA 312 TP 304 S : ASME approved Material A : Ferrous 312 : Manufacturing Process No. WP : Wrought Product B : Grade . TP : Tubular Product 304 : Grade SA 234 GR WPB S : ASME approved Material A : Ferrous 234 : Manufacturing Process No.

Carbon % .08% : Centrifugal Cast. Mo        . Carbon % . Carbon % .03% : Centrifugal Cast.0.0. Carbon % .0.03%.ASTM / ASME Nomenclature  SA 350 LF 2 SA 216 WCB SA 335 P 11 SA 182 Gr F11 SA 351 Gr CF 8 SA 351 Gr CF 3 SA 351 Gr CF 8M SA 351 Gr CF 3M : Low Temperature Forging Grade 2 : Weldable Casting Grade B : Pipe Grade 11 : Forging Grade 11 : Centrifugal Cast.08%. Mo : Centrifugal Cast.0.

) .  Corrosion is broadly classified into two categories:  Low temperature corrosion (corrosion at room temperature and below)  High temperature corrosion (corrosion at elevated temperature including molten metal. carbonate. sulphate or other stable compound. .e.CORROSION  Corrosion is the tendency of any metal to return to its most stable thermodynamic state i. it is a chemical reaction of metal with environment to form an oxide. state with most negative free energy formation. More simply stated.

.  Localized Corrosion  Inter granular corrosion (IGC) Pitting corrosion crevice corrosion Stress corrosion cracking Micro biological influenced corrosion.CORROSION Classification : General or uniform corrosion.

( at Temp.INTER GRANULAR CORROSION    During Welding:. Carbon molecules diffuse to grain boundary & precipitate out of solid solution as chromium carbide at the grain boundaries. & rapid cooling. Testing Standard: IGC Practice A/B/C/D/E . Corrosion property of sensitized steel can be restored by desensitization i. 800-1600 F ). This result in the depletion of chromium content in the thin envelope surrounding each grain.e. Hence Stainless Steel becomes susceptible to Inter Granular Corrosion & is said to be sensitized. heat above 1600 F.

01/77 Reporting of test result: Curve shall be reported as per NACE-TM-01-77 for various stress level between 72%and 90% of SMYS. Testing Standard: NACE TM.SULPHIDE STRESS CORROSION CRACKING     A cracking process that requires simultaneous action of corrodant and sustained tensile stress. . time of failure shall not be less than 720 hrs. Acceptance Criteria: At 72 % SMYS.

and in service.02/84 . Testing Standard: NACE TM. the cracks are sited either in HAZ of parent material or in the weld metal it self.HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING     Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) is also known as cold cracking. delayed cracking or under bead cracking HIC occurs in piping or vessel as a result of hydrogen pick up in service It occurs in steels during steel manufacturing. during fabrication. It occurs as a result of welding.

002% .43%  Hardness < 22 HRC  Sulpher content< 0. Manufacture.NACE NACE: National Association of Corrosion Engineers  NACE Standard gives chemical composition.23%  Carbon Equivalent < 0. Fabrication & testing Requirements for Steels intended to be used for Sour Service environment Sour service Requirements  Steel shall be manufactured by Basic Oxygen Process or Electric arc furnace  Steel to be Killed & fine grained  Materials shall be in Normalized Condition  Nickel % limited to < 1%  Carbon content< 0 .

Material Selection Criteria Service media       Corrosive-sea water. H2S. Ammonia Non Corrosive Cryogenic Low temperature Medium temperature High temperature Low pressure High pressure Material specification Additional requirements Temperature Pressure   Standard   Economy     Cost Availability Weldability Manufacturability .

316L SA 353 (-320) – (-151) SA 312 types 304. 316. 347 (-425) – (-321) SA 312 types 304. F316 . 340L. F304L.8 (S5 SA 20) SA 240 types 304.Material Selection for Temperature SERVICE TEMPERATURE (°F) PLATE PIPE FORGING PRESSURE BOLTING C R Y O G E N I C T E M P SA 240 types 304. 304L.304L. F347 Bolts: SA 320 gr. 304L. F304L. 316L SA 182 grades F304. 347 SA 182 grades F304. 316. Hardened Nuts: SA 194 gr. B8 strain.

1 (-20) – (+4) SA 516 ALL GRADES OVER 1 IN. THICK IMPACT TESTED SA 53 (SEAMLESS) OR SA 106 SA 350 GR.Material Selection for Temperature (Continued…) SERVICE TEMPERATURE (°F) (-150) – (-76) PLATE PIPE FORGING PRESSURE BOLTING SA 203 GR.3 SA 350 GR.A OR B SA 333 GR.B7 NUTS: SA 194 GR.D OR E SA 333 GR. LF1 OR LF2 (+5) – (+32) SA 516 ALL GRADES OVER 1 IN. THICK IMPACT TESTED BOLTS: SA 193 GR.2H . LF3 L O W (-75) – (-51) SA 203 GR. LF3 BOLTS: SA 320 GR.4 T E M P E R A T U R E (-50) – (-21) SA 516 ALL GRADES IMPACT TESTED SA 333 GR.L7 NUTS: SA 194 GR.3 SA 350 GR.

THK. B7 Nuts: SA 194 gr. SA 515 GR. MAX.Material Selection for Temperature (Continued…) SERVICE TEMPERATURE (°F) PLATE PIPE FORGING PRESSURE BOLTING I N T E R M E D I A T E T E M P (+33) – (+60) SA 285 GR. SA 516 ALL GRADES. MAX. ALL THK. (+61) – (+775) SA 285 GR. SA 516 ALL GRADES. ALL THK.5IN. THK. SA 204 GR.B ALL SA 53 (SEAM LESS) OR SA 106 SA 181 GR. MAX. 60.I OR II SA 105 GR. THK.55. MAX.55. 65. ¾ IN.C. ¾ IN. 1.I OR 11 Bolts: SA 193 gr. 60. 2H . 1.5IN. SA 515 GR. THK.C. 65.

2H (+876) – (+1000) SA 387 GR.11 CL1 SA 387 GR.Material Selection for Temperature (Continued…) SERVICE TEMPERATURE (°F) (+776) – (+875) E L E V A T E D PLATE PIPE FORGING PRESSURE BOLTING SA 204 GR.B5 SA 194 GR.L7 NUTS: SA 194 GR.12 CL. F12 T E M P E R A T U R E (+1000)– (+1100) SA 387 GR. 347. 321. 321H. 316H.22 CL1 SA 335 P22 SA 182 GR.1 SA 335 P11 SA 335 P12 SA 182 GR.B8 SA 194 GR. 347H SA 182 GRADES 304H. 347PREFERED SA 312 TYPES 304H. 347H SA 193 GR.P1 SA GR. 312.22 SA 193 GR. F11 SA 182 GR. 316H. 316.F1 182 BOLTS: SA 193 GR.8 ABOVE +1500 TYPE STAINLESS INCOLOY 310 .3 (+1100)– (+1500) SA 240 TYPES 304.B OR C SA 335 GR.

P4. P7 P8 P9 P10.P5 P6.GROUPING OF MATERIALS Base Metal P1 P3. P11 Type : Carbon Steel : Alloy Steel : Ferritic & Martensitic Steel : Austenitic Stainless Steel : Nickel Steel : Quenched & Tempered Steel .

MATERIAL AND ITS SPECIFICATIONS DESCRIPTION PIPE BW FITTINGS FORGED FLANGES/ FITTINGS FASTNERS PLATES CS A 106 GR B A 234 GR WPB A 105 AS A 335 GR P11 A 234 GR WP 11 A 182 GR F11 SS A 312 TP 316 A 403 WP 316 A 182 GR F 316 DSS A 790 UNS S31803 A 815 UNS S 31803 A 182 GR F 51 UNS S 31803 A 453 GR 660 CL A A 240 UNS S 31803 A 193 GR B7/ A 194 GR 2H A 516 GR 70 A 193 GR B16/ A 194 GR 2H A 387 GR 11 A 193 GR B7M/ A 194 GR 2HM A 240 GR 316 .

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