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UTM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

Case Study 2
Thavamalar d/o Balakrisnan Kanageswary d/o Sitravel Gowry d/o Ramaswami Mohd Rozi b. Jusoh Syahidah Rashid (MP111029) (MP101530) (MP111172) (MP101200) (MP101206)
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Differences between Jessie and Judy


JESSIE Loves Science & enjoy Science classes JUDY Does well in Science but without passion Quiz every Friday (80%) Teacher followed textbook, made lesson boring I am motivated to get good grades on the quiz on Friday : my grades are important to me, so that is why I do my chemistry work

Test only once a moth (10%) Teacher made lessons appealing and enjoyable It is enjoyable, and so that we are always curious about things

Hypotheses
Learning is caused by external and internal factors. Learning is affected by significant others (parents, lover, spouse) Behaviour is goal-oriented

Ms Marina wanted to analyze Jessies and Judys behaviour

through traditional and current


theories.
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Theoretical Explanation

Theoretical Approaches

Traditional Theories

Current Theories

TRADITIONAL THEORIES
Conditioning Theories Arousal Theories Drive Theories

Traditional Theories
Field Theory Maslows Needs Hierarchy Theory Trait & Humanistic Theories

FIELD THEORY
Kurt Lewin
i) Behaviour is a function of the field that exists at the time the behavior occurs, ii) Analysis begins with the situation as a whole from which are differentiated the component parts

FIELD THEORY (cont.)


iii) The concrete person in a concrete situation can represented mathematically. iv) Jessie enjoy working, activities based on lab experiments, student involvement and participation v)Judy do well, teaching & learning

process not interesting, special awards

SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY


i) learning and the subsequent performance of

certain behaviors are the result of the ongoing


and reciprocal interaction between a person, the environment, and the already learned behavioral

patterns of the individual and group.


ii) Each student, therefore, responds to instruction and modeling through the lens of these three elements.

COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY THEORY


More recently, consistency has also been viewed as socially motivated the appearance of consistency matters to us Individuals can tolerate a certain amount of inconsistency Involves three cognitive elements, P,O,X: P: Person (perceiver, self) O: Other person X: Attitude object (thing, event, action)

COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY THEORY


Judy likes science experiments but cant maintain the passion The teacher using same strategy She motivated to get good grades on the quiz This is a cognitively imbalanced state, which should motivate Judy to learn chemistry not only because of the rewards.

CURRENT THEORIES
Gestalt Theory Attribution

Expectancy Value Theory

Current Theories
Goal Theory Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation Self-efficacy Theory

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ATTRIBUTION THEORY
Originated by Bernard Weiner Describes the relationship between students explanations or justifications for their academic success or failure and their motivation to learn. Suggest that students attribute their success and failure to 4 main factors : Ability Effort Task difficulty Luck
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ATTRIBUTION THEORY (cont.) INTERNAL EXTERNAL STABLE


UNSTABLE

ABILITY
EFFORT

TASK DIFFICUL TY LUCK

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ATTRIBUTION THEORY (cont.)


JESSIE Loves Science & enjoy Science classes JUDY Does well in Science but without passion Quiz every Friday (80%) Teacher followed textbook, made lesson boring

Test only once a moth (10%) Teacher made lessons appealing and enjoyable

It is enjoyable, and so that we are always curious about things

I am motivated to get good grades on the quiz on Friday : my grades are important to me, so that is why I do my chemistry work

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ATTRIBUTION THEORY (cont.)


Jessie and Judy both do well in science class. However, they attribute their success differently. Jessie attributes more on the internal locus of control Judy attributes more on the external locus of control

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GOAL THEORY

Mastery / Performance Oriented Task / ego involvement Approach / avoidance goals

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GOAL THEORY
MASTERY ORIENTED

Mastery / Performance
PERFORMANCE ORIENTED Effort to achieve highly / succeed with flying colours Influenced externally (grades, praise) Associates with anxiety and cheating upon desperation Increase intrinsic motivation when grades are good Decrease intrinsic motivation when grades are low

Effort to be proficient based on ones own ability Influenced internally (self satisfaction) Associates with in depth learning Increase intrinsic motivation

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GOAL THEORY
TASK INVOLVED Interested in the task for its own qualities

Task / Ego Involvement


EGO INVOLVED Seeking to perform to boost ego

Less threaten by failure (not afraid to fail)

Threaten by failure (cannot accept low grades)

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GOAL THEORY Approach / Avoidance goals


APPROACH GOALS Desire to achieve specific goals Pass maths test Succeed in Science experiment AVOIDANCE GOALS Desire to avoid specific outcomes looking dumb being scolded in front of peers achieve low marks

Motivated to learn through curious and challenging tasks

Motivated to perform highly in easy tasks

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GESTALT THEORY
Pronounced as gehshtalt Suggests that human minds tend to organize things and perceive things as a whole rather than the sum of parts. Example : Reification images

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GESTALT THEORY
Gestalt psychologists believe that it is important to think of a problem as a whole to promote : Productive thinking (solving problem with insight) Reproductive thinking (solving problem with previous experiences)

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GESTALT THEORY
Jessies teacher involves both thinking processes when she includes monthly test and enjoyable experiments in her lesson Judys teacher only provides part of the required skills (quizzes) that does not assist Judys thinking skills and makes her lesson dull.

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SELF-EFFICACY THEORY

Definition - a person's belief in his/her own competence. the belief that one is capable of performing in a certain manner to attain a certain set of goals.

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SELF-EFFICACY THEORY

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The Case : Jessie VS Judy


JESSIE
* Loves & passion about science * * Considering a career in science-field

JUDY
* Doesnt maintain the passion * Not considering any career

* Curious about things * Just for the sake of grades


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INTRINSIC & EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION


Motivation is an internal process that reflects the desire to achieve certain goals. Intrinsic motivation reflects the desire to do something because it is enjoyable. If we are intrinsically motivated, we would not be worried about external rewards such as praise or awards.

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INTRINSIC & EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION


Extrinsic motivation reflects the desire to do something because of external rewards such as awards, money, and praise. People who are extrinsically motivated may not enjoy certain activities.

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The Case : Jessie VS Judy


JESSIE * Intrinsically motivated
* Really enjoy & has passion on chemistry * Dont really bother about the grades -

JUDY * Extrinsically motivated * doesnt really enjoy the class (bored) * Bother about getting good grades * Teachers promise special award
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EXPECTANCY VALUE THEORY

to explain and predict individual's attitudes toward objects and actions. to determine the mental calculations that take place in attitude development. Three basic components of EVT.
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EXPECTANCY VALUE THEORY (cont.)


First, individuals respond to novel information about an item or action by developing a belief about the item or action. If a belief already exists, it can and most likely will be modified by new information. Second, individuals assign a value to each attribute that a belief is based on. Third, an expectation is created or modified based on the result of a calculation based on beliefs and values.
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The Case : Jessie VS Judy


JESSIE JUDY

* Believes that science is * Not really enjoy science enjoyable (not really interested)
* Show an interest in * Just doing the required every activities related to work & nothing more chemistry * Expects to have a good * Nothing to do with the future in science-related- career (Just for the sake field of grades & awards)
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CONCLUSION
Judys teacher needs to improve her lesson to motivate Judy intrinsically and enhance her thinking skills She can also provide feedback to gain insight about Judys attribution and help her to attribute her success towards internal controllable locus of control.

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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