. • Solid wastes are those undesirable. • The hazardous wastes disposed in open land creates air pollution as well as ground water contamination. useless and unwanted materials and substances that comes from human and animal activities.What?? • Waste is defined as discarded material which has no value in normal use or for ordinary use.

• An environmental damage within the boundaries of one state has trans-border ramifications. . • Its also Affecting the day to day life of humans to an great extent.Why?? • ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION and its preservation is today the major concern all over the world.

and using it again to make valuable goods. • Government to act upon such issues and make effective rules and regulation on waste management.How?? • Recycling the waste material. . • Disposing off the hazardous and polluting waste properly • By implementing new technologies to minimize the output of waste material.

also called urban solid waste. is a waste type that includes household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area.Municipal Waste Management Municipal solid waste (MSW). The term residual waste relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for reprocessing . They are in either solid or semisolid form and generally exclude industrial hazardous wastes.

Identifying and Evaluating Options • STEP 5. Establishing The Strategic Planning Framework • STEP 4. Preparing the Action Plan • STEP 7. Define Baseline • STEP 3. Implementing the Strategic Plan . Developing the Strategy • STEP 6. Mobilizing the Planning Process • STEP 2.Steps Involved in MSW • STEP 1.


. which is generated during the diagnosis. NECESSITY: Biomedical waste must be properly managed to protect the general public .specifically healthcare and sanitation workers who are regularlyr exposed to biomedical waste as an occupational hazard.DEFINITION: BIO MEDICAL means any solid . treatment or immunization of human begins or animals or in research pertaining thereto or in the production or testing thereof.liquid waste including its container and any intermediate product .

Microbiology and biotechnology waste.Animal waste (as above. human and animal cell cultures . such as. from veterinary hospital etc 3. generated during research or experimentation. plaster casts .Soiled waste.scalpels.toxins etc 4. bandages.Waste sharps. bodyparts).Human anatomical waste (tissues .microorganisms.COMPONENTS OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE 1.laboratory cultures... 2. such as .Discarded medicines 6. syringes .broken glass 5.material contaminated with blood etc .organs. such as dressing.

Solid waste (disposable items like tubes etc) 8.7.Liquid waste generated from any of the infected areas 9.Chemical waste .IncinerationI ash 10.

the type of waste at each point and level of generation.STEPS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT Waste survey determines the point of generation. Waste segregation consists of placing different types of wastes different containers at the point of generation. untreated waste must be transported from the generation facilityto another site for treatment and disposal . Waste transportation when medical waste is not treated on site. Waste accumulation and storage Occurs between the point of waste generation and site of waste treatment and disposal.

Waste disposal : vary in their capabilities.cost. right at the source so that it is no longer the source of pathogenic organisms.Waste treatment : is mainly required to disinfect or decontaminate the waste. . availability to generation and impact on the environment.

OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY MEASURES Occupational hazard 1. disinfection. urine.of the patients during cleaning job . 2. used gloves etc. 3. transportation and final disp osal are vital steps for safe and scientific management of biomedical waste in any establishment. knives etc . Contact with infected material like pathological path waste. Contact with stool. The key to minimization and effective management of bio-medical waste is SEGREGATION (separation) AND IDENTIFICATION OF WASTE by sorting them into COLOUR CODED plastic bags or containers. pus etc.storage. blood. mutilation. Accidental cut or punctures from infected sharps such as scalpels. segregation.BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS Handling.

soap etc. Sterilization of all equipments and their issue accordingly. .. Provision of disinfectant. of the right quality and clean towel tissue paper.Safety measures Clear directives in the form of a notice to be displayed in all the concerned areas.

Lack of concern.CONCLUSIONS Safe and effective management of waste is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. awareness and costs are some of the problems faced in the proper biomedical waste management. health care providers should always try to reduced the waste generation in day to day work in the clinic or at the hospital. Clearly there is a need for education as to the hazards associated with the improper waste disposal. Hence. cost saving and a more efficent disposal system. A LESSER amount of biomedical waste means a lesser burden on waste disposal work. motivation. .

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