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SEX DETERMINATION FROM

HUMAN SKELETAL
REMAINS {SKULL , PELVIS ,
STERNUM}
As humans, we have three basic
social groups. These groups are
Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid.
With the addition of inter-breeding,
many other subgroups can be found.
Each group possesses unique
skeletal characteristics which allow
us to "race" the remains of person. In
addition to race, we can also
estimate age, stature, and sex.
Using Bones for Identification
It consists of a five phase procedure:

• A general description and confirmation of


the human origins of the material.

2) The estimation and segregation of the


minimum number of individuals.

3) The determination of sex.

4) The estimation of age.

5) The estimation of stature.


Introduction
Skeleton is an excellent material in living
and non-living population for genetic,
anthropological, odontologic and forensic
investigations. Skull and bone features
vary from male to female and
differentiation is usually based on the
The human
male featuresskeleton consists more
that are typically of
both fused and
pronounced andindividual bone.
marked than female
Fused bones include those of the
features.
pelvis and the cranium.
At birth a newborn baby has
approximately 300 bones, whereas
on average an adult human has 206
bones . The difference comes from a
number of small bones that fuse
together during growth, such as the
sacrum and coccyx of the
The determination of sex by
examination of the skeleton is
based upon the appearances
of:
1. Pelvis (innominates +
sacrum )
2. Skull (cranium + mandible )
3. Long bones (Humerus ,
Femur )
4. Sternum
5. Scapula , metacarpal bones
Krongman ranks accuracy of
sex determination using the
pelvis at 95% , the skull at
90%, the pelvis and skull at
98% and long bones at 80%.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
Differences between men and
women include all the features
related to reproductive role,
notably the endocrine (hormonal)
systems and their physical,
psychological and behavioral
effects.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM –
BASIC PRINCIPLES

The evaluation of sexual dimorphism in skeleton


is generally based on two factors:
1. Size difference
2. Function related differences.
Determination of sex is based on two
methodological approaches:

•Morphological (based on Shape )


Adult males and females differ in both
general size and shape, and this
variation is reflected in the skeletal
anatomy.

2. Osteometric (based on bone


dimensions)
Males longer or larger than females.
The skull is a bony
structure which serves
as the general
framework for the head
. The skull supports the
structures of the face
and protects the head
against injury.
The skull can be
subdivided into two parts:
the cranium and the
mandible.
SKULL
The features that indicate sex are :
• General appearance
• Supra orbital ridges
• Orbits
• Glabella
• Zygomatic arches
• Mastoid processes
• External occipital protuberance
• Mandible
• Palate
MALE FEMALE

When compared, the female skull


appears smaller and more gracile. The
male skull is usually larger and more
rugged.
This is the region directly above
Supraorbital ridges the orbit and nose, or the "brow
ridge“.
Less pronounced=female
More pronounced=male
ORBITS
SQUARISH WITH ROUNDISH WITH SHARP
ROUNDISH MARGINS MARGINS

MALE FEMALE
The frontal bone (forehead) of
males tends to be slanted back and
on females it tends to be more
rounded
GLABELLA

WELL DEVELOPED ILL DEVELOPED

MALE FEMALE
Zygomatic arches

In females, the zygomatic arch is less pronounced, and tends


to not extend posteriorly beyond the external auditory meatus.

In males, the zygomatic arch is more pronounced or


robust, and tends to extend posteriorly beyond the external
auditory meatus.
MASTOID PROCESSES
The mastoid processes are located on the inferior
portion of the temporal bone, just posterior to the
external auditory meatus.
EXTERNAL OCCIPITAL PROTUBERANCE
MALE FEMALE
The mandible together with the
maxilla, the largest and strongest
bone of the face . It forms the lower
jaw and holds the lower teeth in
Chin (anterior mandible)

The male mandible Mandible of


tends to have a female tends to
“square” shape. have a pointed
chin.
RAMUS (rear of the mandible)
Mandible in the
male is closer to a
right angle than
the female. In the
female, the ramus
is an obtuse
angle to the lower
jaw bone, i.e.,
greater than 90
degrees. The
ramus in the male
is wider and
larger.

MALE FEMALE
PALATE
LARGER,WIDER AND SMALLER AND
BROADER NARROWER

MALE FEMALE
PELVIS The pelvis comprises the two
innominates and the sacrum.
HIP BONE
The best indicator of sex
on the adult skeleton is
the shape of the pubic
bone of the pelvis.
The hip bone (or innominate bone)
is a large, flattened, irregularly
shaped bone.
Together with the sacrum and coccyx,
it comprises the pelvis.
Components
It consists of three parts, the ilium,
ischium, and pubis, which are distinct
from each other in the young subject,
but are fused in the adult.
Sex Determination from Pelvic
Morphology
The pelvic girdle is the most sexually
dimorphic region of the skeleton, and it
can be used to determine sex with a
high degree of accuracy. The sexual
dimorphism of the pelvis is primarily
the result of reproductive mechanics,
and is not readily apparent until
adolescence.
Sex differentiation in the human pelvis

1. Overall appearance between the two pelvic regions .The male pelvis is
larger and more robust than the female pelvis.
2. The size of the opening between the hips (A). The female skeleton
requires this additional room for birthing.
3. The hips in the male (B) are more vertical than the female's.
•At the rear of the pelvis is the coccyx (C), the male coccyx is larger than the
female's.
•The angle at the front of hips (D), where both sides join (pubic symphysis) is
an obtuse angle in the female, and closer to 90 degrees in the male. The
female obtuse angle is in-line with the broader birthing canal.
PELVIS
Five features in innominate that indicate sex in
pubic region are:
(1) width of sciatic notch (inferior ilium)
(2) subpubic angle (concavity)
(3) ventral arc (on the pubis, near the
symphysis, ventral)
(4) ischio-pubic ramus (bone connecting
pubis and ischium)
(5) acetabulum diameter
(lateral innominate)
SCIATIC NOTCH

SMALL AND DEEP WIDER AND SHALLOWER

MALE FEMALE
SCIATIC NOTCH

Generally, the sciatic notch


tends to be wider in the
female and narrower in the
male.
WIDE AND TEND TO “U”
SUB- LESS AND “V” SHAPED
SHAPED
PUBIC
ANGLE

MALE FEMALE

The subpubic angle is much wider in females than in


males, typically more that 90 degrees and less than 90
degrees, respectively.
It is the curved ridge of bone on anterior surface of
the pubic bone.
It is common in females and almost never seen in
males.
PELVIC INLET

The pelvic inlet


is the space
you see when
both
innominates
and sacrum are
articulated.

The space in the middle of the pelvic bone (the


pelvic inlet) is larger in women to facilitate
birthing.
The sacrum is a large, triangular
bone at the base of the spine and
at the upper and back part of the
pelvic cavity.
The sacrum articulates with four bones:
•the last lumbar vertebra above
•the coccyx below
•the hip bone on either side
Sexual dimorphism
The sacrum is
noticeably
sexually dimorphic
.
In the female the
sacrum is shorter
and wider than in
the male.
The bone is also
directed more MALE FEMALE
obliquely
backward; this
increases the size
of the pelvic cavity.
Straighter in males
The sternum is an
elongated, flattened
bone, forming the
middle portion of the
anterior wall of the
thorax. Its upper end
supports the clavicles
and its margins
articulate with the
cartilages of the first
seven pairs of ribs.
It consists of three
parts, from above
downward:
•Manubrium
•Body of sternum
<125 mm = female
>155 mm = male
These figures are from Bass
• The Essentials of Forensic Medicine
By : Cyril John Polson , D.J.Gee , Bernard Knight

• Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

• Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students


By : Richard S . Snell

• Wikipedia

• Personal Identification from skeleton or its remains


By : G.S. Kaler & N.A. Butt