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Sasmita Mishra KSOM, KIIT University
An experiment is generally used to infer a causality. In an experiment, a researcher actively manipulates one or more causal variables and measures their effects on the dependent variable of interest.
a 5% increase in price of the product will have no appreciable impact on the quantity demanded by customers. in which the causal or independent variables are manipulated in a relatively controlled environment. CR determines the cause and effect relationships. DR is not suitable for establishing. The main method of causal research is experimentation. Therefore. Causal research is appropriate for understanding which variables are the cause/s (independent variables) and which variables are the effect (dependent variables) Like DR. For example. To understand CRD. to establish causal relationship the experiments are used. . causal research requires a planned and structured design. Causal design. causality. one must understand the scientific notion of causality.
the SNC implies that we never prove that X is a cause of Y. The SNC implies a probababilistic relationship. SN: causality is inferred. 1) The common notion: there is a single cause of an event such that the statement X is the cause of Y implies that X is indeed the cause. it is never demonstrated conclusively. concomitant variation. The SNC suggests that X can be a cause of Y if the occurrence of X makes the occurrence of Y more likely or more probable. and elimination of other possible causal factors. 3) Finally. Rather we infer. The SNC of causality is different from the common day notion. Three kinds of evidences. that a relationship exists. . time of occurrence of variables. The SNC holds that X would only be one of the causes/conditions. 2) CN implies a completely deterministic relationship.
Concomitant variation Time order of occurrence of variables Elimination ofother possible causal factors .
Concommitment Variation: If a statement is "X is a cause of Y" then the concomitant variation as to the validity of this statement refers to the extent of which X and Y occur together or vary together in the way predicted by the hypothesis. Where the company has good dealers. The hypothesis. the co. it has market penetration and where the co. in this connection is "The success of a company’s marketing efforts is highly dealer dependent. has unsatisfactory market penetration. If X is to be considered a cause of Y. has poor dealers. 1. one should expect to find the following . Suppose there is a positive relationship between the quality of dealers and market share.
Y Satisfactory Unsatisfa ctory 20(33%) 30(75%) Total 60(100%) 40(100%) Good Poor 40(67%) 10(25%) . Research investigated market penetration in each sales territory Perfect evidence of CV would be provided if all good dealers have satisfactory market share and all poor dealers unsatisfactory market shares. The "pure" case will rarely be found in practice. Dealer Quality X MARKET SHARE . as the other causal factors will effect some deviation from a one-to-one correspondence between X and Y.
it is possible for each term in the relationship to be both a “cause” and an “event” of the other term 3. Time order of Occurrence of Variables This is conceptually simple One event cannot be cause of another if it occurs after the other event. By definition. . If it is not done then the causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable may not be proved. an effect cannot be produced by an event that occurs only after the effect has taken place. However. which may affect the dependent variable under study. The Elimination of other possible causes The researcher has to eliminate any other variable or variables.2. which is carried out through controlled experiments. These evidences can be provided through causal research.
Dependent variables: These variables measures the effect of treatments (independent variable) on the test units. Independent variables: Independent variables are also known as explanatory variables or treatments. Test units: Test units are those entities on which treatments are applied. The levels of these variables are manipulated (changed) by researchers to measure their effect on the dependent variable. .
government policies. Experiment: An experiment is executed when the researcher manipulates one or more independent variables and measures their effect on the dependent variables while controlling the effect of the extraneous variables. geographical location. etc. food intake. Extraneous variables: These are the variables other than the independent variables which influence the response of test units to treatments. temperature. . Examples: Store size.
Internal validity: Internal validity tries to examine whether the observed effect on a dependent variable is actually caused by the treatments (independent variables) in question. . External validity: External validity refers to the generalization of the results of an experiment. The concern is whether the result of an experiment can be generalized beyond the experimental situations.
History Maturation Testing Instrumentation Statistical regression Selection bias Test unit mortality .
The environment at the time of test may be different from the environment of the real world where these results are to be generalized. Results obtained in a 5–6 week test may not hold in an application of 12 months. Population used for experimentation of the test may not be similar to the population where the results of the experiments are to be applied. Treatment at the time of the test may be different from the treatment of the real world. .
Randomization Matching Use of experimental designs Statistical control .
Field Environment . Laboratory Environment .The field experiment is conducted in actual market conditions.In a laboratory experiment. . the researcher conducts the experiment in an artificial environment constructed exclusively for the experiment. There is no attempt to change the real-life nature of the environment.
the internal validity of such designs is questionable.X O1 Group 2 - O2 . One-shot case study: X O One-group pre-test–post-test design: O1 X O2 Static group comparison: Group 1 .Pre-experimental designs do not make use of any randomization procedures to control the extraneous variables. Therefore.
In quasi-experimental design. the researcher can control when measurements are taken and on whom they are taken. this design lacks complete control of scheduling of treatment and also lacks the ability to randomize test units’ exposure to treatments. However.. . Time series design: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 Contd….
Multiple time series design: Experimental Group: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 Control Group: O′7 O′8 O′1 O′2 O′3 O′4 O′5 O′6 .
the researcher is able to eliminate the effect of extraneous variables from both the experimental and control group.In true experimental designs. researchers can randomly assign test units and treatments to an experimental group. Here. Pre-test–post-test control group: Experimental Group: R O1 X O2 Control Group: R O3 O4 .
Post-test – only control group design: Experimental Group: R Control Group: R X O2 O1 Solomon four-group design: Experimental Group 1 : R Control Group 1: R Experimental Group 2: R Control Group 2: R O1 O3 X X O2 O4 O5 O6 .
Completely randomized design Randomized block design Latin square design Factorial design .Statistical designs allow for statistical control and analysis of external variables.
Thank You .