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Sasmita Mishra KSOM, Bhubaneswar
research technique in which information is gathered from a sample of people by use of a questionnaire or interview; a method of data collection based on communication with a representative sample of individuals.
Mostly surveys are descriptive. Typically. but can be also conducted to find out causal relationships. Surveys are conducted to collect quantitative as well as qualitative information. . survey investigations attempt to describe what is happening or to learn the reasons for a particular business activity.
Define research objectives Choose mode of collection Construct and pretest a questionnaire Choose sampling frame Design and select sample Recruit and measure sample Code and edit data Make postsurvey adjustments Perform analysis .
Target Population Construct Sampling Frame Measurement Response What is the survey about? Who is the survey about? Sample Respondent Edited Response Postsurvey Adjustments Survey statistics The Measurement dimension describes what data are to be collected about the observational units in the sample The Representational dimention concerns what population are described by the survey .
Response Response could be produced in a variety of means But in general the nature of the response is determined by the nature of the measurement Edited Response Editing of data may examine the full distribution of answers and look for atypical patterns of responses Edited responses are the data from wich inference is made about the values of the construct for an individual respondent .Construct Constructs are the elements of information that are sought by the researcher : Emotional Labour Leadership style The degree of knowledge of mathematics of childrens… Measurement Measurements are ways to gather information about constructs : Questions posed to a respondent NB: the critical task for maesurement is to design questions that produce answers reflecting perfectly the construct we are trying to measure.
Sample The sample is the group from wich measurement will be sought. Examination of non response patterns may suggest an underrepresentation of some groupes relative to the sampling frame . a list of telephone numbers when the target population is the adult population Respondent Respondents are the elements successfully measures. Sampling Frame The frame population if the set of target population members that has chance to be selected into the survey sample : In a simple case it is a list of all units in the target population.e.Target Population The target population is the set of unit to be studied The adult population living in households in 2009. In many case it is a very small fraction of the the sampling frame i. but sometimes it is a set of units imperfectly linked to population members. Non respondents is the complement Postsurvey Adjustments Postsurvey adjustments consist on weighting up the underrepresented groups in order to improve the survey estimate Because of mismatches of the sampling frame and the target population (coverage problems) statistics based on the respondents can differ from caracteristics of the target population.
Construct Validity Target Population Coverage error Sampling Frame Sampling error Sample Nonresponse error Respondent Adjustments error Postsurvey Adjustments Measurement Measurement error Response Processing error Edited Response Survey statistics .
using a telephone frame to cover the full household population Undercoverage Target population .:non telephone household. using a telephone frame to cover the full household population Ineligible units Frame population Covered population Ineligible units Elements in the frame that are no member of the target population i.:business telephone numbers.Undercoverage Elements in the target population missing from the frame i.e.e.
the common perspective taken by the target population on key issues etc… Focus groups Questionnaire pretest Researcher test how questions are read and answered. A small number of target population participate in a systematic discussion about the survey topic. the response alternatives etc.Are the answers good measures of the intended construct? Exemple of methods that can be used to evaluate draft survey questions Expert reviews The substantive expert review the wording. The researcher learn about the nomenclature of the concept. A behaviour coding is often used . the order and the structure of questions.
Nonresponse error Acquiescence bias Respondent error Response bias Deliberate falsification Extremity bias Interviewer bias Auspices bias Social desirability bias Total error Random sampling error Unconscious misrepresentation Systematic error (bias) Data processing error Sample selection error Interviewer error Interviewer cheating Administrative error .
of the population random sampling error is a function of sample size (as sample size >. random sample error ) Systematic (nonsampling ) error – results from nonsampling factors. Random sampling error –refers to statistical fluctuations that occur because of chance variations in the elements selected for the sample sampling units even if correctly selected due to sampling theory may not perfectly represent the population if a sample is selected using true randomisation (every element of the population has an equal chance of selection) then a sample can be a good approx. primarily due to the nature of a study’s design & the correctness of execution .
Sampling frame error .an error that occurs when certain sample elements are not listed or are not accurately represented in a sampling frame (occurs between the population and sampling frame) Random sampling error – as discussed on previous slide (occurs between the sampling frame and the planned sample for study) Nonresponse error – the statistical difference between a survey that includes only those who responded and a perfect survey that would also include those who failed to respond (occurs between the planned sample and the respondents (actual sample)) .
OCR/ICR Optical/intelligent caracter recognition FAX Computerised Self Administered Questionnaires Mail Telephone Face to face Disk by Mail E-mail Web CATI computer assisted telephone interviewing TDE Touchtone data entry IVR Interactive voice response CAPI computer assisted SAQ Self administered questionnaire personal interviewing Text CASI Walkman Audio CASI Video CASI .
OCR/ICR Optical/intelligent character recognition FAX Mail Disk by Mail E-mail Web .
Telephone CATI computer assisted telephone interviewing TDE Touchtone data entry IVR Interactive voice response .
Face to face SAQ Self administered questionnaire CAPI computer assisted Text CASI personal interviewing Audio CASI Video CASI Walkman .
and spinach. However. The juice drink. made from concentrate with added ingredients. The drink contains no fat or cholesterol. V8 is a 100-percent vegetable juice drink produced and marketed by the Campbell Soup Company. sales had begun to slip. V8’s ingredients include tomato juice from concentrate. . provides a full serving vegetables and is a natural source of beta carotene. parsley. and it is a good source of vitamins A and C. watercress. beets. vitamin C (ascorbic acid).flavoring. salt. celery. made from water and concentrated juices of carrots. reconstituted vegetable juice blend. and critic acid. so the company decided it needed to conduct consumer research that would enable it to develop a new advertising campaign. V8 has for many years had a large share of the tomato and vegetable juice market. lettuce.
What research objectives should marketers at v8 establish? What research methods would be most appropriate to accomplish these objectives? .
The president of the company decided that the company needed to learn more about its customers.A manufacturer of baseball cards. . He instructed his business research department to conduct a focus group with some boys in the fourth grade. football cards. and other sports and novelty cards had never conducted business research with its customers.
Outline what you would like to learn in the focus group What particular problems might be involved when conducting a focus group with children? .
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