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Shearography

- NDT Capabilities

2003 Date

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The basic principles of the measurement method are interferometry and correlation techniques
Interferometry is determination of fractional relative phase difference between light waves traversing different paths. Phenomena which can be measured are those which influence the phase of the light beams. In practice this is e. g. surface deformation

2003 Date

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The basic principles of the measurement method are interferometry and correlation techniques
Digital Image Correlation is a data analysis method, which uses a proprietary mathematical correlation method to analyse digital image data taken while samples are subjected to mechanical stresses. Consecutive image captures taken during the testing phase will show a change in surface characteristics as the specimen is effected by the mechanical stresses imposed upon it.

2003 Date

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Non-destructive testing is the common use of shearography. The defects become visible on measuring their inhomogeneous deformation gradients. Depending on the spatial distribution of deformation the defect or the structure itself can be characterised. The rotor measurements show a dis-bond (left), a crack (right) and a structural transition (centre). Compare fringe density and distribution.

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Dynamic excitation is a special technique of isi-sys for non destructive testing. During the sweep the vibration modes are visible in real-time. The example (left) shows selected images of C-Si-C composite (sweep 120kHz) with an in service dis-bond in the middle. Further data processing enables determination the mechanical properties of the defect area.

2003 Date

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Impact defect detection in carbon fibre composites (CFRP) by dynamic excitation


The examples shows carbon fibre panel with impacts prepared by Airbus, Bremen. Similar carbon composites are used for the new Airbus A380.

2003 Date

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Impact defect detection in carbon fibre composites (CFRP) by dynamic excitation


The defects are prepared by impacts of different energies. The defects become visible by dynamic excitation at their natural frequencies as show below.

Defect visible at 17.873Hz

Evaluated vibration mode

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Example of NDT by dynamic excitation applied on GLARE


The examples shows a glare panel (size 500x500, see below) with de-bondings (60mm) prepared by Airbus Bremen. Glare is a combination of Aluminium plates with composite layers used for the new Airbus A380F. The defects (dis-bonds or delaminations) are prepared in different depth between the aluminum plates. The defects become visible by dynamic excitation at their natural frequencies as show below by the supperposed measurement results.

2003 Date

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Shearography principle recall


Stimulating load

Shearographic head
(Laser + optical system)

Loading:
Laser beam

Thermal
Vacuum pressure
Defect

Vibration Mechanical

Object

Image processing

Birefringent element Polarizer

CCD

Image processing

Illuminated object
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Lens

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Shearography principle recall


Comparaison : TV-Holographie and Shearographie

Absolute measurement TV-holography

--_____

Initial position After-stress position Measured value Shear length

Differential measurement Shearography

- - - Position initial
x
_____

Position aprs-dformation

Mesure de gradient Shearographie


25.38 22.29

Valeur mesure
1.195 0.946

25.1
19.20

1.55

21.7
16.11

18.3
13.01

91.9 73.7

x Shear

0.696

1.19
0.446

0.82
0.197

138.6 108.2 78.8 48.9 19.5

14.9
9.92

0.45
-0.053

11.5
6.83

55.9
-0.303

0.09 -0.28
-0.552

8.1
3.74

37.7 20.2

4.7
0.64

-0.65
-0.802

1.3
-2.45

-1.01
-1.052

-2.1
-5.54 X= 9.8 Y=59.6 32.9 59.6 55.6 60.2 78.8 60.2 101.9 61.0 124.6 61.6 147.7 61.6 170.8 62.2 193.6 62.2 216.7 63.1 239.4 63.6

-1.38
-1.301 X=11.0 Y=59.6 32.9 59.6 55.6 59.6 78.8 59.6 101.9 59.6 124.6 60.2 147.7 60.2 170.8 60.2 193.6 60.2 216.7 60.2 239.4 61.0

-5.5 3.1 Deslocamento [m] PV= 30.614 13-02-2001 19:37:20 27.0 52.1 76.0 100.7 124.6 149.7 173.6 198.3 222.2 247.3

-1.75 6.9 Deformation [m/shear] PV= 3.301 11-12-2000 10:56:13 31.5 57.3 82.3 107.8 132.8 158.6 183.2 209.1 233.7 259.5

Deslocamento [m] PV= 30.925 13-02-2001 19:49:40

Deformao [m/shear] PV= 2.497 13-02-2001 19:37:20

LOME/INEGI

Typical TV-holography result


LOME/INEGI

LOME/INEGI

Typical shearographic result


NDT Expert 3-grad.TFD

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Shearography
FOLLOW UP

- Capabilities
Monitoring on Optical disc useful on serialised parts

REPORTING

SIZING

LOCALIZATION

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Shearography

- Capabilities

Example of images obtained with thermal Loading

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Shearography

- Capabilities

DAMAGE TYPE DETECTED Honey comb junctions dislocation

X-ray result

Shearographic Images with two perpendicular shear directions

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Shearography

- Capabilities

DAMAGE TYPE DETECTED Metal/metal edges unbounding


Top view

unbounding
Profile view

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Shearography
ON

- Capabilities

CONCORDE

Positioning and sizing tool

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Shearography

- Capabilities

DAMAGE TYPE DETECTED Adhesive craking under impact

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Shearography

- Capabilities

Example of vacuum loading

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Shearography

- Capabilities
Liquid ingress

DAMAGE TYPE DETECTED Water or liquid ingress

unbound

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Shearography

- Capabilities

Comparative tests

Shearographic system

US-Laser System

Thermographic system

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Shearography

- Capabilities

Results of Comparative tests

Shearography immediate(t)

Thermography Lock-In US-Laser (Amplitude)

Shearography after 15 sc. (t) US-Laser (time base) NDT expert - The ultimate control Xxxxxx Titre xxxx NDT expert

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Shearography

- Capabilities

Impacted Monolithc (CFRP)

Displacement field

US C-Scan

Corrosion Detection Aluminium Alloys

Displacement field

CF C-Scan

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Shearography

- Capabilities

Pressurized material control


Ageing control

MIRA pressure vessel Filamentary wounded (AlGFRP)

Old

New

Delamination detection

Procedure Control Diagram of the part to be inspected

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Shearography

- Capabilities

Conclusions
Benefits:
Contact less Global method, Good sensitivity,

Real time inspection,


Quicker than most of the NDI methods, Working on all type of materials and structures, Numerical acquisition give rise to efficient follow up,

New type of damage are now detectable without opening the structure
The keys of the efficiency are in the selection of the loading and the implementation

2003 Date

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