a hungry body does not take initiative. hungry children are especially vulnerable and become too weak to fight off disease and may die from common infections like measles and diarrhoea.100 kilocalories per day per person to allow a normal. • By 2001-2003. • Hunger also weakens the immune system. A hungry mind cannot concentrate. the body needs more than 2. • The body compensates for the lack of energy by slowing down its physical and mental activities.100 kilocalories that the average person needs to lead a healthy life. the total number of undernourished people worldwide had risen to 854 million and the latest figure is 925 million . even months. Deprived of the right nutrition. a hungry child loses all desire to play and study. its victims must live on significantly less than the recommended 2.What is Hunger • On average. healthy life • For weeks.

tropical storms and long periods of drought are on the increase due to climatic change and global warming. and Fields and water wells are often mined or contaminated • Poverty • Farmers often cannot afford seed to plant the crops No land or water or education to lay the foundations for a secure future. • War Destruction of food and livestock and systematically wrecking local markets. lack of storage facilities and unreliable water supplies Over-exploitation of environment Poor farming practices. The results are high transport costs. Lack of Agricultural Infrastructure Enough roads. overcropping and overgrazing exhaust the fertility of land Threat from erosion. • . deforestation. warehouses and irrigation.Why does Hunger Exist? • Nature Natural disasters such as floods. salination and desertification.


02 129.43 101.6 342 POPULATION (IN CRORES) 196.48 134.08 150 82.98 0 TOTAL FOOD GRAIN PRODUCTION( MILLION TONNES) 1990-91 2010-11 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 2000-01 2020-21 2030-31 .21 108.05 100 50.82 69.39 148.76 85.04 55.350 300 250 200 291 241.5 44.58 50 36.59 118.81 176.



Wilson. 2002 The Future of life . using technology and regulatory policy more advanced and even safer than now in existence” . without being trapped in a Faustian bargain that threatens freedom from security. The benefits must come from an evergreen revolution.Edward O.Food security – lab to land “The problem before us is how to feed billions of new mouths over the next several decades and save the rest of life at the same time. The aim of this new thrust is to lift food production well above the level attained by the green revolution of the 1960s.

and of expanding biotic and abiotic stresses. Such a challenge can be met only by harnessing the best in frontier technologies and blending them with our rich heritage of ecological prudence. .No Time to Relax Shaping our Agricultural Future • • • • • • • • Population rich but land hungry countries like China and India have no option except to produce more food grains and other agricultural commodities per units of land and water under conditions of diminishing per capita availability of arable land and irrigation water. Ecotechnologies • for an Ever-green revolution should be the • bottom line of our strategy to shape our agricultural future.

However. Although the technology has so far concentrated on overcoming weeds and pests. . GM crops feature prominently in macro-solutions to the global food crisis. are the most extreme and controversial output of the biotechnology companies. it has potential to respond to nutritional needs or drought and salinity brought on by climate change. the technology depends on capital intensive farming and the intellectual property rights are held by a small nucleus of corporations dominated by Monsanto.Biotechnology • Biotechnology and GM Crops Genetically modified soya bean? © Centre for Science and EnvironmentGenetically-modified (GM) crops. in which a gene of desired characteristic is transposed from one plant to another. These characteristics have limited appeal in the poorest countries whose farmers are accustomed to the right to save their own seeds. and lower chemical inputs. Claiming higher yields. Very few countries in Africa have adopted GM crops and 2010 saw thelandmark rejection of a modified aubergine plant by the Indian government.

show higher yields in terms of total harvest per unit area . organic agriculture has the potential to increase yields. such as those developed by small holders and subsistence farmers.Organic Farming v/s Green Revolution farming • Farming practices that maintain and increase long-term soil fertility and prevent pest and diseases. • In traditional rain-fed agriculture (with low-input external inputs). • Multiple cropping systems.

Effect of chemical pollutants and adulterants on Food and food products .

.The way ahead • Our ability to achieve a paradigm shift from green to an ever-green revolution and our ability to face the challenges of global warming and sea level rise will depend upon our ability to harmonise organic farming and the new genetics.

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