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Romanticism refers to a movement in art, literature, and music th during the 19 century.
In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education and natural history.
horror and terror and awe— especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its picturesque qualities. . placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation. both new aesthetic categories. The movement validated strong emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience.
harnessing the power of the imagination to envision and to escape. and it also attempted to embrace the exotic. urban sprawl. unfamiliar. and industrialism. . Romanticism reached beyond the rational and Classicist ideal models to elevate a revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be authentically medieval. and distant in modes more authentic than Rococo chinoiserie. in an attempt to escape the confines of population growth.
It has equally been used to refer to various artistic. without any great measure of consensus emerging. and social trends of that era. . poets. the term "Romanticism" has been used to refer to certain artists. as well as political. Despite this general usage of the term. In a basic sense. musicians. a precise characterization and specific definition of Romanticism have been the subject of debate in the fields of intellectual history and literary history throughout the 20th century. intellectual. writers. philosophical and social thinkers of the late 18th and early to mid 19th centuries.
Although the term "Romanticism" when applied to music has come to imply the period roughly from the 1820s until around 1900. . the contemporary application of "romantic" to music did not coincide with this modern interpretation.
and by most standards.A. and Ludwig Spohr used the term "good Romantic style" to apply to parts of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. Mozart and Haydn are considered Classical composers. Technically. the sense that there had been a decisive break with the musical past led to the establishment of the 19th century as "The Romantic Era". . In 1810 E. By the early 20th century.T. and it is referred to as such in the standard encyclopedias of music. Haydn and Beethoven the three "Romantic Composers". Hoffmann called Mozart. Beethoven represents the start of the musical Romantic period.
such as the cantabile accompanied melody to which Romantic composers beginning with Franz Schubert applied restless key modulations. The traditional modern discussion of the music of Romanticism includes elements. . such as the growing use of folk music. which are also directly related to the broader current of Romantic nationalism in the arts as well as aspects already present in 18thcentury music.
. the romantic musician followed a public career depending on sensitive middleclass audiences rather than on a courtly patron. as had been the case with earlier musicians and composers. In the contemporary music culture. Public persona characterized a new generation of virtuosi who made their way as soloists. epitomized in the concert tours of Paganini and Liszt.
showed the way to a completely unexplored musical universe. Beethoven's use of tonal architecture in such a way as to allow significant expansion of musical forms and structures was immediately recognized as bringing a new dimension to music. especially. . His later piano music and string quartets.
The Romantic-era ballet freed itself both from opera. the universal presence of impetuous or ill-fated young love. expressed in lengthy passages of mime. the supremacy of the ballerina and the choice often of supernatural subjects: Giselle (1841) remains the supreme example. and from court fêtes. in which a ballet interlude retained an essential role only in Paris. and independently paralleled the developments of opera with explicit narrative libretti. .
of the works of Schumann (d. 1827) and Schubert (d. 1856) and Chopin (d.1849). . of the early struggles of Berlioz and Richard Wagner. of the great virtuosi such as Paganini (d. and the young Liszt and Thalberg. It is the period of 1815 to 1848 which must be regarded as the true age of Romanticism in music – the age of the last compositions of Beethoven (d. 1828). 1840).
the heroic isolation of the artist or narrator. several romantic authors. wilder. untrammeled and "pure" nature. based their writings on the supernatural/occult and human psychology. Romanticism also helped in the emergence of new ideas and in the process led to the emergence of positive voices that were beneficial for the marginalized sections of the society. In literature. such as Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne. . and respect for a new. the cult of "sensibility" with its emphasis on women and children. Romanticism found recurrent themes in the evocation or criticism of the past. Furthermore.
Early pioneers include Joseph Warton (headmaster at Winchester College) and his brother Thomas Warton. professor of Poetry at Oxford University. . The roots of romanticism in poetry go back to the time of Alexander Pope (1688–1744).
inspiring both Goethe and the young Walter Scott. The Scottish poet James Macpherson influenced the early development of Romanticism with the international success of his Ossian cycle of poems published in 1762. The "poet's poet" Thomas Chatterton is generally considered to be the first Romantic poet in English. .
. and Goethe's works would have a seminal influence in developing a unifying sense of nationalism. a young artist with a very sensitive and passionate temperament. whose 1774 novel The Sorrows of Young Werther had young men throughout Europe emulating its protagonist. An early German influence came from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. At that time Germany was a multitude of small separate states.
Novalis (Heinrich von Ofterdingen. Heinrich von Kleist and Friedrich Hölderlin. Another philosophic influence came from the German idealism of Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Schelling. Hegel. . Schiller and the brothers Schlegel) a center for early German romanticism ("Jenaer Romantik"). as well as Schelling. Heidelberg later became a center of German romanticism. 1799). and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff met regularly in literary circles. Achim von Arnim. Important writers were Ludwig Tieck. making Jena (where Fichte lived. where writers and poets such as Clemens Brentano.
for example. and ancient myths. A. . The later German Romanticism of. nature. 1819. E. T. Important motifs in German Romanticism are travelling. 1817. and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff's Das Marmorbild (The Marble Statue). Hoffmann's Der Sandmann (The Sandman). was darker in its motifs and has gothic elements.
north and south. Baratynsky's style was fairly classical in nature. . and the still world of winter and spring teeming with life. Tyutchev commonly operated with such categories as night and day. Influenced heavily by Lord Byron. the foremost British Romantic poet of the time period. cosmos and chaos. dream and reality. while Tyutchev's poems often described scenes of nature or passions of love. dwelling on the models of the previous century. Lermontov sought to explore the Romantic emphasis on metaphysical discontent with society and self.
Polish Romanticism revived the old "Sarmatism" traditions of Polish nobility (the szlachta). as well as the writers (Henryk Sienkiewicz's Trylogia). This close connection between Polish Romanticism and Polish history became one of the defining qualities of the literature of Polish Romanticism period. . Juliusz Słowacki and Zygmunt Krasiński. Old traditions and customs were revived and portrayed in a positive light in the Polish messianic movement and in works of great Polish poets such as Adam Mickiewicz (Pan Tadeusz). differentiating it from that of other countries. They had not suffered the loss of national statehood as was the case with Poland.
The most important Spanish poet during this movement was José de Espronceda. the Romantic movement developed a well-known literature with a huge variety of poets and playwrights. In Spain. Mariano José de Larra and the dramatist José Zorrilla. Before them may be mentioned the pre-romantics José Cadalso and Manuel José Quintana. After him there were other poets like Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer. . author of Don Juan Tenorio.
respectively. Spanish Romanticism also influenced regional literatures. . For example. in Catalonia and in Galicia there was a national boom of writers in the local languages. the main figures of the national revivalist movements Renaixença and Rexurdimento. like the Catalan Jacint Verdaguer and the Galician Rosalía de Castro.
Brazilian Romanticism is characterized and divided in three different periods. The second period is marked by a profound influence of European themes and traditions. and Gonçalves Dias. The first one is basically focused in the creation of a sense of national identity. involving the melancholy. who wrote "Iracema" and "O Guarani". The third cycle is marked by social poetry. Goethe and Lord Byron are commonly quoted in these works. Some examples include José de Alencar. especially the abolitionist movement. using the ideal of the heroic Indian. . sadness and despair related to unobtainable love. the greatest writer of this period is Castro Alves. renowned by the poem "Canção do Exílio" (Song of the Exile).
‖ Blake's artistic work is also strongly influenced by Medieval illuminated books. W. Mary Shelley. Both poets were also involved in utopian social thought in the wake of the French Revolution. . whose coauthored book Lyrical Ballads (1798) sought to reject Augustan poetry in favour of more direct speech derived from folk traditions. The painters J. The poet and painter William Blake is the most extreme example of the Romantic sensibility in Britain. M. Percy Bysshe Shelley. John Keats and John Clare constitute another phase of Romanticism in Britain. Turner and John Constable are also generally associated with Romanticism. mostly associated with the poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Romanticism in British literature developed in a different form slightly later. epitomised by his claim ―I must create a system or be enslaved by another man's. Lord Byron.
and the novels of Alexandre Dumas and Stendhal. Victor Hugo. François-René de Chateaubriand is often called the "Father of French Romanticism". In predominantly Roman Catholic countries Romanticism was less pronounced than in Germany and Britain. or models" in Romanticism). In France. poems and novels of Victor Hugo (such as Les Misérables and NinetyThree)(also. in the preface to "Cromwell" states that " there are no rules. after the rise of Napoleon. the plays. particularly in the paintings of Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix. the movement is associated with the 19th century. . and tended to develop later.
However. segueing seamlessly to Modernism. especially in his sonnets dated at the end of the 18th century. . Modern Portuguese poetry definitely develops its outstanding character from the work of its Romantic epitome. an early Portuguese expression of Romanticism is found already in the genius of Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage. Almeida Garrett. a very prolific writer who helped shape the genre with the masterpiece Folhas Caídas (1853). This late arrival of a truly personal Romantic style would linger on to the beginning of the 20th century. notably through the works of poets such as Cesário Verde and António Nobre.
from The Last of the Mohicans. By the 1880s. however. Edgar Allan Poe's tales of the macabre and his balladic poetry were more influential in France than at home. with their emphasis on heroic simplicity and their fervent landscape descriptions of an already-exotic mythicized frontier peopled by "noble savages". In the United States. followed from 1823 onwards by the Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper. but the romantic American novel developed fully in Nathaniel Hawthorne's atmosphere and melodrama. exemplified by Uncas. Later Transcendentalist writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson still show elements of its influence and imagination. . There are picturesque "local color" elements in Washington Irving's essays and especially his travel books. The poetry of Emily Dickinson—nearly unread in her own time—and Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick can be taken as epitomes of American Romantic literature. as does the romantic realism of Walt Whitman. romantic Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820) and Rip Van Winkle (1819). psychological and social realism was competing with romanticism in the novel. similar to the philosophical theory of Rousseau.
and the assumption that the natural world was inherently good. while human society was filled with corruption. American Romanticism was just as multifaceted and individualistic as it was in Europe. . The European Romantic movement reached America in the early 19th century. an emphasis on intuitive perception. commitment to individualism and the unfolding of the self. Like the Europeans. the American Romantics demonstrated a high level of moral enthusiasm.
The Romantic movement gave rise to New England Transcendentalism which portrayed a less restrictive relationship between God and Universe. philosophy and art. The movement appealed to the revolutionary spirit of America as well as to those longing to break free of the strict religious traditions of early settlement. which includes the belief that the destiny of each individual is preordained. It appealed to those in opposition of Calvinism. Romanticism became popular in American politics. The Romantics rejected rationalism and religious intellect. .
It often involved a rapturous response to nature. . It encouraged the rejection of harsh. Transcendentalism and Romanticism appealed to Americans in a similar fashion. The new religion presented the individual with a more personal relationship with God. for both privileged feeling over reason. rigid Calvinism. and promised a new blossoming of American culture. individual freedom of expression over the restraints of tradition and custom.
The Romantic movement in America created a new literary genre that continues to influence American writers. Novels. Romantic literature was personal. American Romanticism embraced the individual and rebelled against the confinement of neoclassicism and religious tradition. and the main characters typically displayed extremes of sensitivity and excitement. America's preoccupation with freedom became a great source of motivation for Romantic writers as many were delighted in free expression and emotion without so much fear of ridicule and controversy. . and portrayed more emotion than ever seen in neoclassical literature. intense. and poems replaced the sermons and manifestos of yore. They also put more effort into the psychological development of their characters. short stories.
and the American Revolution (1775–1783)—which directly preceded the French Revolution (1789– 1799)—are all examples. The Romantic Era is a time in history that was surrounded by war. the French and Indian War (1754–1763). . The Seven Years' War (1756–1763).
The strong feelings that wartime produces served as a catalyst for an outpouring of art and literature. The writing was so different in fact. These wars. that it sparked its own new "era": The Romantic Era . the likes of which had never been seen before. along with the political and social turmoil that went along with them. served as the background for Romanticism.
It was the writers‘ way of contributing to the fight. they can all be said to have at least these characteristics: A love of nature. For example. The works of the Romantic Era are a vast and unique collection of literary works. the nationalism seen in Romantic works may be attributed to the fact that the authors of the time took pride in their country. These simple characteristics can be linked back to the fact that these works were being written in time of political turmoil. and their ―cause‖. a sense of nationalism. . and a sense of exoticism/the supernatural. their people. However.
In a time of war and political uneasiness. only the wealthy upper classes. . Much of the writing predating the Romantic Era was written for. and in the style of. not to those above them. not just wealthy aristocracy. Romantics strove towards literature and arts that were for everyone. The works of the Romantic Era also differed from preceding works in that they spoke to the ―common‖ people. Romantics had a hand in changing this around— and it may have been because they were trying to connect with the commoners. the writers were reaching out for a connection with their equals. the ones fueling the wars.
g. The writings of female Romantic writers. The women were at home. Favret's War in the Air. . without a way to express their feelings. such as Mary Favret. This can be attributed to the fact that this period was submerged in wartime. are infused with feeling. During the Romantic period there was an increase in female authors as well. e. and sometime even reference the war itself. or even connect to those around them. fight for the cause.
In European painting. the Romantic sensibility contrasted with the neoclassicism being taught in the academies.W.M. Francisco Goya. led by a new generation of the French school. emphasized in the new prominence of the brushstroke and impasto the artist's free handling of paint. . In a revived clash between color and design. Turner. the expressiveness and mood of color. as in works of J. Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix. which tended to be repressed in neoclassicism under a self-effacing finish.
Ivan Aivazovsky and Vasily Tropinin. most especially in the exaltation of an untamed American landscape found in the paintings of the Hudson River School.W. Norway with J. Dahl and Hans Gude. Germany with Caspar David Friedrich. . In Italy Francesco Hayez was the leading artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan. literary Romanticism had its counterpart in the American visual arts. As in England with J. Eugène Delacroix. Russia with Orest Kiprensky. and others. Spain with Francisco Goya.C. and France with Théodore Géricault. Turner and Samuel Palmer.M. Théodore Chassériau.
Painters like Thomas Cole, Albert Bierstadt and Frederic Edwin Church and others often expressed Romantic themes in their paintings. They sometimes depicted ancient ruins of the old world, such as in Fredric Edwin Church‘s piece Sunrise in Syria. These works reflected the Gothic feelings of death and decay. They also show the Romantic ideal that Nature is powerful and will eventually overcome the transient creations of men. More often, they worked to distinguish themselves from their European counterparts by depicting uniquely American scenes and landscapes. This idea of an American identity in the art world is reflected in W. C. Bryant‘s poem, To Cole, the Painter, Departing for Europe, where Bryant encourages Cole to remember the powerful scenes that can only be found in America. This poem also shows the tight connection that existed between the literary and visual artists of the Romantic Era
Some American paintings promote the literary idea of the ―noble savage‖ (Such as Albert Bierstadt‘s The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak) by portraying idealized Native Americans living in harmony with the natural world.
Thomas Cole's paintings feature strong narratives as in The Voyage of Life series painted in the early 1840s that depict man trying to survive amidst an awesome and immense nature, from the cradle to the grave (see below).
To insulate theology from reductionism in science, 19th century post-Enlightenment German theologians moved in a new direction, led by Friedrich Schleiermacher and Albrecht Ritschl. They took the Romantic approach of rooting religion in the inner world of the human spirit, so that it is a person's feeling or sensibility about spiritual matters that comprises religion.
with their focus on development of national languages and folklore. which became a central theme of Romantic art and political philosophy. From the earliest parts of the movement. and the importance of local customs and traditions. . nationalism was one of the key vehicles of Romanticism. expression and meaning. its role. to the movements which would redraw the map of Europe and lead to calls for selfdetermination of nationalities. One of Romanticism's key ideas and most enduring legacies is the assertion of nationalism.
Early Romantic nationalism was strongly inspired by Rousseau. and by the ideas of Johann Gottfried von Herder. . who in 1784 argued that the geography formed the natural economy of a people. and shaped their customs and society.
and the reactions in other nations. inspirational to movements in other nations: self-determination and a consciousness of national unity were held to be two of the reasons why France was able to defeat other countries in battle. after the French Revolution with the rise of Napoleon. however. Napoleonic nationalism and republicanism were. . at first. The nature of nationalism changed dramatically.
or nationality. but the object of its struggle. But as the French Republic became Napoleon's Empire. the development of spiritual renewal as a means to engage in the struggle against Napoleon was argued by. a disciple of Kant. among others. was coined in German as part of this resistance to the now conquering emperor. Napoleon became not the inspiration for nationalism. . In Prussia. Johann Gottlieb Fichte. The word Volkstum.
compiled from Finnish tales and folklore. the revival of old epics as national. or Ossian. as in the Kalevala. . This view of nationalism inspired the collection of folklore by such people as the Brothers Grimm. The view that fairy tales. unless contaminated from outside literary sources. where the claimed ancient roots were invented. and the construction of new epics as if they were old. was not exclusive to Romantic Nationalists. were preserved in the same form over thousands of years. but fit in well with their views that such tales expressed the primordial nature of a people.
not least in Poland. which had recently lost its independence when Russia's army crushed the Polish Uprising under Nicholas I. customs and traditions by Romantic poets and painters helped to distinguish their indigenous cultures from those of the dominant nations and crystallise the mythography of Romantic nationalism. . Revival and reinterpretation of ancient myths. Romanticism played an essential role in the national awakening of many Central European peoples lacking their own national states.
nationalism. . Patriotism. who developed an idea that Poland was the Messiah of Nations. revolution and armed struggle for independence also became popular themes in the arts of this period. the most distinguished Romantic poet of this part of Europe was Adam Mickiewicz. Arguably. predestined to suffer just as Jesus had suffered to save all the people.
• A list of ―Romantics‖ by their contemporaries would certainly be more prestigious. and would include a majority of the leading painters working in the period 1800-50 notably: • • • • • • • Goya (Spanish) Géricault (French) Delacroix (French) Turner (British) Blake Runge Friedrich (German) .
• Goya used the methods of his great predecessor. 1828. . Spain & later lived primarily in Madrid • Spanish painter & engraver. • March 30. 1746 – April 15. Velazquez. • Born in Fuendetodos.Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes.
Madrid . 57‖ x 32‖ Museo del Prado.1819-1823 Detail of a detached fresco on canvas. full size approx.
Giant1818 The Forge .
France. Painted by Gericault between 1818-1819.16‘ x 23‘. The painting lives at the Louverne in Paris. .
The Race of the Barbary Horses .
but coldly determined to express passion as clearly as possible.‖ -Baudelaire .―Delacroix was passionately in love with passion.
• “Death of Sardanapalus” .
the right landscape can come about. then it follows clearly.• • • • Philipp Otto Runge. Runge was a religious visionary who believed in angels. ―Once we see in all of nature only our own life. 1777-1810 Declared that true art could be Understood only through the deepest mystical experience of religion.‖ .
however. born Sept. then he should also refrain from painting that w/c he sees before him. generally considered the most important of the movement . Friedrich's spirituality anticipated American painters such as Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847–1917). 1842– 1910) and Ivan Shishkin (1832–98). Ralph Blakelock (1847–1919).• • • • ― ‗The Artist‘ should paint not only what he sees before him.‖ -Friedrich Caspar David Friedrich. he sees nothing w/in him. If. was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter. Saxony. the painters of the Hudson River School and the New England Luminists. 1840. and the substantial presence of Friedrich's works in Russian collections influenced many Russian painters. but also what he sees within him. Pomerania — died May 7. 1774. Dresden. Among later generations. . Friedrich's style most influenced the painting of Johan Christian Dahl (1788–1857). Greifswald. in particular Arkhip Kuindzhi (c. Arnold Böcklin (1827–1901) was strongly influenced by his work. 5.
do I so frequently choose death. • The emblems of death are everytwhere: the desolation of the season. . the destruction wrought by the time on the chapel. transience. • The painting is a kind of meditation of human morality. and the grave as subjects to my painting? One must submit oneself to death in order some day to attain life everlasting. as Friedrich himself remarked: ―Why. it has often occurred to me to ask myself. the black of mourning worn by the grieving &by the skeletal trees.‖ • The sharp focused rendering of details demonstraites the artist‘s keen perception of everything in the physical environment relevant to his message.• Like a solemn requiem. leaning crosses & tombstones.
“The Solitary Tree” Caspar David Friedrich.Caspar David Friedrich. Woman at a Window . “Moonrise” Caspar David Friedrich.
how do you do?‖ -William Blake's tribute to Fuseli .―The only man that ever I knew Who did not make me almost spew Was Fuseli: he was both Turk and Jew And so. dear Christian Friends.
in which an ape-like goblin sits on a young woman. who spent most of his active career in England. . who is sleeping in a strained posture. Fuseli has often been regarded as a forerunner of the Romantic art movement and a precursor of Symbolism and Surrealism.• • • • • • Swiss painter poet Critic Teacher a fervent admirer of Shakespeare. His most famous painting is The Nightmare (1781).
with her arm hanging down. It has remained a puzzle.• After his romance with Lavater‘s niece Anna Landolt failed. refers to this affair. A young woman is mounted by a demonic looking incubus. She lies in a sprawl. the monster literally is a burden on her heart. ultimately perhaps a manifestation of a jealous passion. in which the strange lover of the woman is reduced into a monster. he left in 1779 for London. that the picture is an revenge for an unfulfilled desire. the ―night mare‖ gazes through the curtains with phosphorescent eyes. observing or leering. A horse. It has been said. whose nightmare Fuseli portrays-it cannot be the woman‘s because she is part of the scene herself. The work became so popular that Fuseli painted several other versions on request. It is though that his best-known scene. . The Nightmare.
from 'Paradise Lost' .Lady Macbeth Seizing the Daggers The Night-Hag Visiting Lapland Witches Percival Delivering Belisane from the Enchantment of Urma The Shepherd's Dream.
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